Yale College

Above: Buckingham House in Saybrook, Connecticut, where Yale University held its first commencement, Carol M. Highsmith. Courtesy Library of Congress. Right: Old Capitol Building and Church, Williamsburg, Unknown original source. Courtesy Wikipedia Commons.


Pre-Revolution Timeline - The 1700s


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  • 1702 Detail

    November 10, 1702 - Siege of St. Augustine, one of the first conflicts of Queen Anne's War, the second of four French and Indian Wars between New France and the English colonists, this time including New Spain on the side of France.

    Siege of St. Augustine

    The wars to claim control of the colonial territory along the Eastern seaboard was not waning, no matter how many previous treaties had been signed between New France, the English colonies, New Netherlands, and New Spain. It had only been five years since the Peace Treaties of Ryswick (Rijswijk) were signed, supposedly ending King William's War, the first of six colonial wars between New France and the English colonies. No, the territorial claims had not been sufficiently addressed. So now, with Queen Anne on the throne, she would get a New France versus New England war named after herself. And this time, it would include New Spain as well.

    In 1700, Carolina claimed that Pensacola, established two years earlier by New Spain, was in English territory, and that this claim would be enforced. It led to the months prior to the 1702 Siege of St. Augustine rife for conflict. Carolina governor James Moore had been destroying the coastal towns north of St. Augustine as he approached the city for several weeks in late October and early November with a force of five hundred colonists and several hundred Indian allies from the Yamasee, Tallapoosa, and Alabama tribes, warning New Spain governor Jose' de Zu'niga y la Cerda that an attack on the city was coming. He pulled all citizens and supplies into the 1672 Castillo of San Marcos, the strong fortress on the western shore of Matanzas Bay.

    Moore split his forces into two parts; some overland to Port Royal Island, South Carolina, and others on fourteen ships. The star fort with four bastions now held fifteen hundred residents of St. Augustine when it was besieged by Moore and his combined force. The siege would last for more than one month. But the fort, with its masonry walls, could not be breached by the four small English cannons in the force. When Spanish ships arrived from Havana on December 29, 1702, the English abandoned their effort one day later, even destroying eight of their ships. Many of the men returned to Charles Town, Carolina on foot. The city of St. Augustine was predominantly destroyed by the Spanish and English during and after the siege, but the fort was spared. New Spain had withstood the attack.

    Governor Moore was forced to resign due to the failure of the raid, but remained active in the military in Queen Anne's War. Even though the bastion of the Castillo of San Marcos had held, the destruction of the towns along Moore's path to St. Augustine never fully recovered, making it difficult for New Spain to prosper after the war.

    Queen Anne's War Before the Siege

    First, Queen Anne's War was part of a larger conflict known as the War of Spanish Succession that had started in 1701. News did not reach the colonies until 1702, after the May declarations of war from England against both France and Spain. It would be fought in New England versus New France to the new colonies of New France in Louisiana, based in Mobile, and New Spain, based in St. Augustine.

    The English had a large advantage in numbers, with a population estimated at two hundred and fifty thousand stretching from Acadia to the Carolinas. New Spain had fewer than two thousand. The census for New France in 1688 showed 11,562 persons with an estimated growth to 15-16,000 by the early 1700's. There were constant disagreements on territory, from Acadia in the north between New France and New England. There were increasing tensions on the borders with New France in the interior, because both England and France knew of the value of the Mississippi River, which had been discovered and was in the early stages of settlement by New France near its mouth. And then there was the aforementioned disagreement between the territory of the Carolina Colony and New Spain in the Floridas.

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    Main Battles of Queen Anne's War

    November 10, 1702 - Siege of St. Augustine begins between Carolina colonists under Governor James Moore and Indian allies against New Spain Castillo of San Marcos. Month long siege ends with English retreat after reinforcements arrive from Havana.

    Janusary 25-26, 1704 - Series of attacks in western Florida known as the Appalachee Massacre by ex-governor James Moore with fifty colonists and one thousand Creek allies versus New Spain and Appalachee allies ends with the depopulation of Spanish Florida caused by this and subsequent English raids.

    February 29, 1704 - New France raid on Deerfield, Massachusetts Bay Colony, led by Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville with Wabanaki allies, ends with forty-seven colonists killed and one hundred and twelve made captive.

    May 15/26, 1704 - English expedition in retaliation for Deerfield raid led by Benjamin Church and five hundred soldiers and Indian allies begins. It would continue through the end of July, including the battle against Grand-Pre', Acada, Nova Scotia in June. Effort was to gain prisoners that could be exchanged for those taken in the Deerfield raid.

    October 5-13, 1710 - Siege of Port Royal, French capital of Acadia, by English succeeds after two previous failures. The Conquest of Acadia by English commander Francis Nicholson and three thousand six hundred soldiers and Indian allies would lead to permanent English control of Acadia, i.e. the eventual state of Maine.

    June 10/21, 1711 - Battle of Bloody Creek fought near today's Carleton Corner, Nova Scotia with attack by Abenaki allies of New France meant to weaken English control of Port Royal, Acadia. Abaneki victory over seventy English militia leads to siege of Port Royal, but siege fails.

    April 11, 1713 - Queen Anne's War ends with the French signing a treaty in the series of Treaties of Utrecht that would give Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Rupert's Land to the British, and see the Spanish give up the European ports in Gibraltar and Minorca.

    Image above: Southern portion of the map of the Atlantic Coast, 1733, Henry Popple. Courtesy Boston Public Library via Wikipedia Commons. Image Below: Deerfield Raid in Queen Anne's War, 1900, Walter Henry Lippincott. Courtesy New York Public Library via Wikipedia Commons. Info Source: Census Canada; warpsaths2peacepipes.org; Wikipedia Commons.

    Queen Anne's War

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