|Pre-Revolution Timeline -
3, 1492 - After years of negotiations to get the funds to make his
journey, Christopher Columbus sets out on three ships, the Niņa, the
Pinta, and the Santa Maria, to find a westward passage to the Indies
under the auspices of Queen Isabella I of Spain.
1492 - Rodrigo de Triana, a crew member of the Pinta, sights the land
of the Americas in the Bahamas. This was the first of four voyages
Christopher Columbus would make under the patent of the Spanish and
Isabella I of Castile. It began the period of Spanish colonization of
the New World. Columbus called the Bahamian site, San Salvador. He
would also explore the islands of Cuba and Haiti on this trip, but not
the continent of North America itself.
September 24, 1493 -
Columbus began his second trip to the American colonies with seventeen
ships and 1,200 men. These men were meant to colonize the land
found and claimed during the journey beyond the few left in the
Americas after the first voyage. He would arrive in the New World again
on November 3, 1493 and explore more of the islands in the Caribbean,
including Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.
June 7, 1494 -
The Treaty of Tordesillas, between Spain and Portugal, attempts to
ratify and clarify ownership of the lands outside Europe and who could
claim them. This was an effort to resolve questions arising from
the return of Columbus. This treaty, and a subsequent treaty on
April 22, 1529, the Treaty of Zaragosa, would only further confuse the
issue beyond the two nations Spain and Portugal.
5, 1496 - King Henry VII signs an agreement with John (Giovanni) Cabot
to explore the western hemisphere under the flag and authority of
England. It is thought likely that the British King was in
disagreement with the Treaty of Tordesillas, as well as a prior Papal
decision, to effectively split the riches and exploration of the New
Worlds between Spain and Portugal. He would attempt a first
voyage with one ship, but be unsuccessful, and turn back.
1497 - On his second voyage for England from the port of Bristol, John
Cabot (aka Giovanni, a Genoese native sailing under the English flag)
rediscovers the North American continent on June 24, 1497, the first
European exploration of the continent since Norse explorers in the 11th
century. He explores the northeast coast, landing first at Cape
Bonavista in Newfoundland. They made landfall for a short period
of time to raise the English flag, then explored the coast. His
ship was known as the Matthew of Bristol.
1498 - Cabot undertakes another voyage to the New World under his
English papers. It is unknown whether Cabot returned from this
voyage and various reports state that his ships were lost at sea.
Recent research suggests a second theory, that his ships did return to
England after a two year exploration of the coastline of Canada and the
United States, even down into the Spanish claimed territories of
Columbus in the Caribbean.
30, 1498 - The third voyage of Columbus began in the Spanish city of
Sanlucar. During this voyage, he explored the islands of the
Caribbean again as well as the South American territories of what is
now Venezuela. Upon visiting the previously established
settlements, he found much discontent among those left behind to
colonize the region.
|Christopher Columbus, by Ridalfo
|Replica of the ship Matthew of Bristol of
John Cabot. Photo source: Wikimedia Commons.
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