The war with Britain was over, for now, and it was time
for the United States to build its insitutions, of democracy, of the
frontier, of its military. And it was time to prove to the world that
this form of government could succeed, and prove its line of succession
was possible. When Washington gave way to Adams in 1797, that act
secured first proof that its concept had merit, and the world was
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August 3, 1795 - General Wayne signs a peace treaty with
the Indians at Fort Greenville, Ohio, ending the hostilities in what
was then known as the Northwest Territories after the Indian
Confederation's defeat at Fallen Timbers the year before.
General Anthony Wayne had been sent west to the area below the Great
Lakes in what would be known at the time as the Northwest Territories.
He had been George Washington's faithful and efficient general during
the American Revolution, but now, in the first term of the first
president of the United States, the northwest territories, i.e. Ohio
and surrounding states, were being hotly contested, and had been for
ten years, between settlers, the Indian tribes, and the British, who
were supposed to leave the area via the terms of the Paris Treaty of
1783 that ended the American Revolution. By 1794, the battles had been
waged, and the final fray lost, with the Indian Confederation of the
West defeated at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20 near present
day Toledo, Ohio.
It left the negotiations to begin. They would take nearly a year.
Finally on August 3, 1795, the representatives of the Western
Confederacy, including the tribes of the Wyandots, Delawares,
Shawanees, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pattawatimas, Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas,
Kickapoos, Piankeshaws, and Kaskaskias, met with representatives of the
United States to sign. The Northwest Indian War would be over, and it
would be over at great cost. The Greenville Treaty Line would be
established, past which would be Native American territory that would
not be open to European settlement. In exchange for these boundaries,
which would be abrogated quickly despite the treaty, the tribes
received $20,000. What lands did they cede? Much of Ohio, the site of
future Chicago, and the Fort Detroit area.
Who respresented the United States government and the settlers? General
Anthony Wayne, Williams Wells, William Henry Harrison, William Clark
and Meriweather Lewis of ten years later Lewis and Clark fame, and
Northwest Indian War
At the end of the American Revolution, Great Britain
ceded the Northwest Territories to the United States in the 1783 Treaty
of Paris, but effectively did not leave, continuing to man forts in the
area and establish relationships with the Indian tribes. There were
approximately forty-five thousand Indians in the area at the time. The
tribes here, who had not been defeated during the American Revolution,
still thought of the land northwest of the Ohio River as theirs. Led by
Little Turtle, chief of the Miami, and Blue Jacket, chief of the
Shawnee, they were determined to keep the land north of the Ohio River
as tribal land. George Washington attempted to establish sovereignty in
various campaigns of the U.S. Army from 1791-1793, but suffered major
defeats. He enlisted General Anthony Wayne in 1793 to put an end to the
defeats and establish the Legion of the United States as an effective
fighting force to do so.
A Grand Council on the Sandusky River failed to reach a settlement in
September 1793, and a force of 1,500 Indian warriors were dispatched to
attack U.S. forts, with British officers in support. General Wayne
countered by taking his two thousand man legion into Indian territory
and building two forts; Fort Greeneville and Fort Recovery. On August
20, 1794, the Western Confederacy of tribes met Wayne's force along the
Maumee River, south of today's Toledo. A stand of trees had fallen in a
storm and were thought by Blue Jacket to provide cover against the
advancing troops. It did not. A bayonet charge ended the Battle of
Fallen Timbers, causing a rout and retreat toward a nearby British
fort. Fort Miami (Miamis) closed its doors, not allowing their Indian
allies inside, afraid to start another war with the United States
itself. In the Jay Treaty with Great Britain signed November 19, 1794,
the British finally agreed to leave their forts still in United States
territory. By June of 1796, they did.
Today, the Fallen Timbers Battlefield and Fort Miamis National Historic
Site can be visited. It is located north of the Maumee River in the
city of Maumee and is associated with the National Park Service. As of
2017, the new park, which is also associated with the city of Toldeo,
had few visitor services. The park is still in the planning stages for
Full Text - Treaty of Greenville, 1795
The Treaty of Greenville 1795
WYANDOTS, DELAWARES, ETC.
[concluded August 3, 1795]
A treaty of peace between the United States of America, and the tribes
of Indians called the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanees, Ottawas,
Chippewas, Pattawatimas, Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas, Kickapoos,
Piankeshaws, and Kaskaskias.
To put an end to a destructive war, to settle all controversies, and to
restore harmony and friendly intercourse between the said United States
and Indian tribes, Anthony Wayne, major general commanding the army of
the United States, and sole commissioner for the good purposes above
mentioned, and the said tribes of Indians, by their sachems, chiefs,
and warriors, met together at Greenville, the head quarters of the said
army, have agreed on the following articles, which, when ratified by
the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United
States, shall be binding on them and the said Indian tribes.
Art. 1: - Henceforth all hostilities shall cease; peace is hereby
established, and shall be perpetual; and a friendly intercourse shall
take place between the said United States and Indian tribes.
Art. 2: - All prisoners shall, on both sides, be restored. The Indians,
prisoners to the United States, shall be immediately set at liberty.
The people of the United States, still remaining prisoners among the
Indians, shall be delivered up in ninety days from the date hereof, to
the general or commanding officer at Greenville, fort Wayne, or fort
Defiance; and ten chiefs of the said tribes shall remain at Greenville
as hostages, until the delivery of the prisoners shall be effected.
Art. 3: - The general boundary line between the lands of the United
States and the lands of the said Indian tribes, shall begin at the
mouth of Cayahoga river, and run thence up the same to the portage,
between that and the Tuscarawas branch of the Muskingum, thence down
that branch to the crossing place above fort Lawrence, thence westerly
to a fork of that branch of the Great Miami river, running into the
Ohio, at or near which fork stood Loromie's store, and where commences
the portage between the Miami of the Ohio, and St. Mary's river, which
is a branch of the Miami which runs into lake Erie; thence a westerly
course to fort Recovery, which stands on a branch of the Wabash; thence
southwesterly in a direct line to the Ohio, so as to intersect that
river opposite the mouth of Kentucke or Cuttawa river. And in
consideration of the peace now established; of the goods formerly
received from the United States; of those now to be delivered; and of
the yearly delivery of goods now stipulated to be made hereafter; and
to indemnify the United States for the injuries and expenses they have
sustained during the war, the said Indian tribes do hereby cede and
relinquish forever, all their claims to the lands lying eastwardly and
southwardly of the general boundary line now described: and these
lands, or any part of them, shall never hereafter be made a cause or
pretence, on the part of the said tribes, or any of them, of war or
injury to the United States, or any of the people thereof.
And for the same considerations, and as an evidence of the returning
friendship of the said Indian tribes, of their confidence in the United
States, and desire to provide for their accommodations, and for that
convenient intercourse which will be beneficial to both parties, the
said Indian tribes do also cede to the United States the following
pieces of land, to wit:
1)One piece of land six miles square, at or near Loromie's store,
2) One piece two miles square, at the head of the navigable water or
landing, on the St. Mary's river, near Girty's town.
3) One piece six miles square, at the head of the navigable water of
the Auglaize river.
4) One piece six miles square, at the confluence of the Auglaize and
Miami rivers, where fort Defiance now stands.
5) One piece six miles square, at or near the confluence of the rivers
St. Mary's and St. Joseph's, where fort Wayne now stands, or near it.
6) One piece two miles square, on the Wabash river, at the end of the
portage from the Miami of the lake, and about eight miles westward from
7) One piece six miles square, at the Ouatanon, or Old Wea towns, on
the Wabash river.
8) One piece twelve miles square, at the British fort on the Miami of
the lake, at the foot of the rapids.
9) One piece six miles square, at the mouth of the said river, where it
empties into the lake.
10) One piece six miles square, upon Sandusky lake, where a fort
11) One piece two miles square, at the lower rapids of Sandusky river.
12) The post of Detroit, and all the land to the north, the west and
the south of it, of which the Indian title has been extinguished by
gifts or grants to the French or English governments: and so much more
land to be annexed to the district of Detroit, as shall be comprehended
between the river Rosine, on the south, lake St. Clair on the north,
and a line, the general course whereof shall be six miles distant from
the west end of lake Erie and Detroit river.
13) The post of Michilimackinac, and all the land on the island on
which that post stands, and the main land adjacent, of which the Indian
title has been extinguished by gifts or grants to the Frewnch or
English governments; and a piece of land on the main to the north of
the island, to measure six miles, on lake Huron, or the strait between
lakes Huron and Michigan, and to extend three miles back from the water
of the lake or strait; and also, the Island De Bois Blane, being an
extra and voluntary gift of the Chippewa nation.
14) One piece of land six miles square, at the mouth of Chikago river,
emptying into the southwest end of lake Michigan, where a fort formerly
15)One piece twelve miles square, at or near the mouth of the Illinois
river, emptying into the Mississippi.
16) One piece six miles square, at the old Piorias fort and village
near the south end of the Illinois lake, on said Illinois river. And
whenever the United States shall think proper to survey and mark the
boundaries of the lands hereby ceded to them, they shall give timely
notice thereof to the said tribes of Indians, that they may appoint
some of their wise chiefs to attend and see that the lines are run
according to the terms of this treaty.
And the said Indian tribes will allow to the people of the United
States a free passage by land and by water, as one and the other shall
be found convenient, through their country, along the chain of posts
hereinbefore mentioned; that is to say, from the commencement of the
portage aforesaid, at or near Loromie's store, thence along said
portage to the St. Mary's, and down the same to fort Wayne, and then
down the Miami, to lake Erie; again, from the commencement of the
portage at or near Loromie's store along the portage from thence to the
river Auglaize, and down the same to its junction with the Miami at
fort Defiance; again, from the commencement of the portage aforesaid,
to Sandusky river, and down the same to Sandusky bay and lake Erie, and
from Sandusky to the post which shall be taken at or near the foot of
the Rapids of the Miami of the lake; and from thence to Detroit. Again,
from the mouth of Chikago, to the commencement of the portage, between
that river and the Illinois, and down the Illinois river to the
Mississippi; also, from fort Wayne, along the portage aforesaid, which
leads to the Wabash, and then down the Wabash to the Ohio. And the said
Indian tribes will also allow to the people of the United States, the
free use of the harbors and mouths of rivers along the lakes adjoining
the Indian lands, for sheltering vessels and boats, and liberty to land
their cargoes where necessary for their safety.
Art. 4: - In consideration of the peace now established, and of the
cessions and relinquishments of lands made in the preceding article by
the said tribes of Indians, and to manifest the liberality of the
United States, as the great means of rendering this peace strong and
perpetual, the United States relinquish their claims to all other
Indian lands northward of the river Ohio, eastward of the Mississippi,
and westward and southward of the Great Lakes and the waters, uniting
them, according to the boundary line agreed on by the United States and
the King of Great Britain, in the treaty of peace made between them in
the year 1783. But from this relinquishment by the United States, the
following tracts of land are explicitly excepted:
1st. The tract on one hundred and fifty thousand acres near the rapids
of the river Ohio, which has been assigned to General Clark, for the
use of himself and his warriors.
2nd. The post of St. Vincennes, on the River Wabash, and the lands
adjacent, of which the Indian title has been extinguished.
3rd. The lands at all other places in possession of the French people
and other white settlers among them, of which the Indian title has been
extinguished as mentioned in the 3d article; and
4th. The post of fort Massac towards the mouth of the Ohio. To which
several parcels of land so excepted, the said tribes relinquish all the
title and claim which they or any of them may have.
And for the same considerations and with the same views as above
mentioned, the United States now deliver to the said Indian tribes a
quantity of goods to the value of twenty thousand dollars, the receipt
whereof they do hereby acknowledge; and henceforward every year,
forever, the United States will deliver, at some convenient place
northward of the river Ohio, like useful goods, suited to the
circumstances of the Indians, of the value of nine thousand five
hundred dollars; reckoning that value at the first cost of the goods in
the city or place in the United States where they shall be procured.
The tribes to which those goods are to be annually delivered, and the
proportions in which they are to be delivered, are the following:
1st. To the Wyandots, the amount of one thousand dollars.
2nd. To the Delawares, the amount of one thousand dollars.
3rd. To the Shawanees, the amount of one thousand dollars.
4th. To the Miamis, the amount of one thousand dollars.
5th. To the Ottawas, the amount of one thousand dollars.
6th. To the Chippewas, the amount of one thousand dollars.
7th.To the Pattawatimas, the amount of one thousand dollars, and
8th. To the Kickapoo, Wea, Eel River, Piankeshaw, and Kaskaskia tribes,
the amount of five hundred dollars each.
Provided, that if either of the said tribes shall hereafter, at an
annual delivery of their share of the goods aforesaid, desire that a
part of their annuity should be furnished in domestic animals,
implements of husbandry, and other utensils convenient for them, and in
compensation to useful artificers who may reside with or near them, and
be employed for their benefit, the same shall, at the subsequent annual
deliveries, be furnished accordingly.
Art. 5: - To prevent any misunderstanding about the Indian lands
relinquished by the United States in the fourth article, it is now
explicitly declared, that the meaning of that relinquishment is this:
the Indian tribes who have a right to those lands, are quietly to enjoy
them, hunting, planting, and dwelling thereon, so long as they please,
without any molestation from the United States; but when those tribes,
or any of them, shall be disposed to sell their lands, or any part of
them, they are to be sold only to the United States; and until such
sale, the United States will protect all the said Indian tribes in the
quiet enjoyment of their lands against all citizens of the United
States, and against all other white persons who intrude upon the same.
And the said Indian tribes again acknowledge themselves to be under the
protection of the said United States, and no other power whatever.
Art. 6: - If any citizen of the United States, or any other white
person or persons, shall presume to settle upon the lands now
relinquished by the United States, such citizen or other person shall
be out of the protection of the United States; and the Indian tribe, on
whose land the settlement shall be made, may drive off the settler, or
punish him in such manner as they shall think fit; and because such
settlements, made without the consent of the United States, will be
injurious to them as well as to the Indians, the United States shall be
at liberty to break them up, and remove and punish the settlers as they
shall think proper, and so effect that protection of the Indian lands
herein before stipulated.
Art. 7: - The said tribes of Indians, parties to this treaty, shall be
at liberty to hunt within the territory and lands which they have now
ceded to the United States, without hindrance or molestation, so long
as they demean themselves peaceably, and offer no injury to the people
of the United States.
Art. 8: - Trade shall be opened with the said Indian tribes; and they
do hereby respectively engage to afford protection to such persons,
with their property, as shall be duly licensed to reside among them for
the purpose of trade; and to their agents and servants; but no person
shall be permitted to reside among them for the purpose of trade; and
to their agents and servants; but no person shall be permitted to
reside at any of their towns or hunting camps, as a trader, who is not
furnished with a license for that purpose, under the hand and seal of
the superintendent of the department northwest of the Ohio, or such
other person as the President of the United States shall authorize to
grant such licenses; to the end, that the said Indians may not be
imposed on in their trade.* And if any licensed trader shall abuse his
privilege by unfair dealing, upon complaint and proof thereof, his
license shall be taken from him, and he shall be further punished
according to the laws of the United States. And if any person shall
intrude himself as a trader, without such license, the said Indians
shall take and bring him before the superintendent, or his deputy, to
be dealt with according to law. And to prevent impositions by forged
licenses, the said Indians shall, at lease once a year, give
information to the superintendent, or his deputies, on the names of the
traders residing among them.
Art. 9: - Lest the firm peace and friendship now established, should be
interrupted by the misconduct of individuals, the United States, and
the said Indian tribes agree, that for injuries done by individuals on
either side, no private revenge or retaliation shall take place; but
instead thereof, complaint shall be made by the party injured, to the
other: by the said Indian tribes or any of them, to the President of
the United States, or the superintendent by him appointed; and by the
superintendent or other person appointed by the President, to the
principal chiefs of the said Indian tribes, or of the tribe to which
the offender belongs; and such prudent measures shall then be taken as
shall be necessary to preserve the said peace and friendship unbroken,
until the legislature (or great council) of the United States, shall
make other equitable provision in the case, to the satisfaction of both
parties. Should any Indian tribes meditate a war against the United
States, or either of them, and the same shall come to the knowledge of
the before mentioned tribes, or either of them, they do hereby engage
to give immediate notice thereof to the general, or officer commanding
the troops of the United States, at the nearest post.
And should any tribe, with hostile intentions against the United
States, or either of them, attempt to pass through their country, they
will endeavor to prevent the same, and in like manner give information
of such attempt, to the general, or officer commanding, as soon as
possible, that all causes of mistrust and suspicion may be avoided
between them and the United States. In like manner, the United States
shall give notice to the said Indian tribes of any harm that may be
meditated against them, or either of them, that shall come to their
knowledge; and do all in their power to hinder and prevent the same,
that the friendship between them may be uninterrupted.
Art. 10: - All other treaties heretofore made between the United
States, and the said Indian tribes, or any of them, since the treaty of
1783, between the United States and Great Britain, that come within the
purview of this treaty, shall henceforth cease and become void.
In testimony whereof, the said Anthony Wayne, and the sachems and war
chiefs of the before mentioned nations and tribes of Indians, have
hereunto set their hands and affixed their seals. Done at Greenville,
in the territory of the United States northwest of the river Ohio, on
the third day of August, one thousand seven hundred and ninety five.
Tarhe, or Crane, his x mark L.S. J. Williams, jun. his x mark, L.S.
Teyyaghtaw, his x mark, L.S. Haroenyou, or half king's son, his x mark,
L.S. Tehaawtorens, his x mark, L.S. Awmeyeeray, his x mark, L.S.
Stayetah, his x mark L.S. Shateyyaronyah, or Leather Lips, his x mark,
L.S. Daughshuttayah, his x mark L.S. Shaawrunthe, his x mark L.S.
Tetabokshke, or Grand Glaize King, his x mark, L.S. Lemantanquis, or
Black King, his x mark, L.S. Wabatthoe, his x mark, L.S. Maghpiway, or
Red Feather, his x mark, L.S. Kikthawenund, or Anderson, his x mark,
L.S. Bukongehelas, his x mark, L.S. Peekeelund, his x mark, L.S.
Wellebawkeelund, his x mark, L.S. Peekeetelemund, or Thomas Adams, his
x mark, L.S. Kishkopekund, or Captain Buffalo, his x mark, L.S.
Amenahehan, or Captain Crow, his x mark, L.S. Queshawksey, or George
Washington, his x mark, L.S. Weywinquis, or Billy Siscomb, his x mark,
L.S. Moses, his x mark, L.S.
Misquacoonacaw, or Red Pole, his x mark, L.S. Cutthewekasaw, or Black
Hoof, his x mark, L.S. Kaysewaesekah, his x mark, L.S. Weythapamattha,
his x mark, L.S. Nianysmeka, his x mark, L.S. Waytheah, or Long Shanks,
his x mark, L.S. Weyapiersenwaw, or Blue Jacket, his x mark, L.S.
Nequetaughaw, his x mark, L.S. Hahgoosekaw, or Captain Reed, his x
Augooshaway, his x mark, L.S. Keenoshameek, his x mark, L.S. La Malice,
his x mark, L.S. Machiwetah, his x mark, L.S. Thowonawa, his x mark,
L.S. Secaw, his x mark, L.S.
Mashipinashiwish, or Bad Bird, his x mark, L.S. Nahshogashe, (from Lake
Superior), his x mark, L.S. Kathawasung, his x mark, L.S. Masass, his x
mark, L.S. Nemekass, or Little Thunder, his x mark, L.S. Peshawkay, or
Young Ox, his x mark, L.S. Nanguey, his x mark, L.S. Meenedohgeesogh,
his x mark, L.S. Peewanshemenogh, his x mark, L.S. Weymegwas, his x
mark, L.S. Gobmaatick, his x mark, L.S.
Chegonickska, an Ottawa from Sandusky, his x mark, L.S.
PATTAWATIMAS OF THE RIVER ST. JOSEPH.
Thupenebu, his x mark, L.S. Nawac, for himself and brother Etsimethe,
his x mark, L.S. Nenanseka, his x mark, L.S. Keesass, or Run, his x
mark, L.S. Kabamasaw, for himself and brother Chisaugan, his x mark,
L.S. Sugganunk, his x mark, L.S. Wapmeme, or White Pigeon, his x mark,
L.S. Wacheness, for himself and brother Pedagoshok, his x mark, L.S.
Wabshicawnaw, his x mark, L.S. La Chasse, his x mark, L.S.
Meshegethenogh, for himself and brother, Wawasek, his x mark, L.S.
Hingoswash, his x mark, L.S. Anewasaw, his x mark, L.S. Nawbudgh, his x
mark, L.S. Missenogomaw, his x mark, L.S. Waweegshe, his x mark, L.S.
Thawme, or Le Blanc, his x mark, L.S. Geeque, for himself and brother
Shewinse, his x mark, L.S.
PATTAWATIMAS OF HURON.
Okia, his x mark, L.S. Chamung, his x mark, L.S. Segagewan, his x mark,
L.S. Nanawme, for himself and brother A. Gin, his x mark, L.S.
Marchand, his x mark, L.S. Wenameac, his x mark, L.S.
Nagohquangogh, or Le Gris, his x mark, L.S. Meshekunnoghquoh, or Little
Turtle, his x mark, L.S.
MIAMIS AND EEL RIVERS.
Peejeewa, or Richard Ville, his x mark, L.S. Cochkepoghtogh, his x
EEL RIVER TRIBE.
Shamekunnesa, or Soldier, his x mark, L.S.
Wapamangwa, or the White Loon, his x mark, L.S.
WEAS, FOR THEMSELVES AND THE PIANKESHAWS.
Amacunsa, or Little Beaver, his x mark, L.S. Acoolatha, or Little Fox,
his x mark, L.S. Francis, his x mark, L.S.
KICKAPOOS AND KASKASKIAS.
Keeawhah, his x mark, L.S. Nemighka, or Josey Renard, his x mark, L.S.
Paikeekanogh, his x mark, L.S.
DELAWARES OF SANDUSKY.
Hawkinpumiska, his x mark, L.S. Peyamawksey, his x mark, L.S.
Reyntueco, (of the Six Nations, living at Sandusky), his x mark, L.S.
H. De Butts, first A.D.C. and Sec'ry to Major Gen. Wayne, Wm. H.
Harrison, Aid de Camp to Major Gen. Wayne, T. Lewis, Aid de Camp to
Major Gen. Wayne, James O'Hara, Quartermaster Gen'l. John Mills, Major
of Infantry, and Adj. Gen'l. Caleb Swan, P.M.T.U.S. Gen. Demter, Lieut.
Artillery, Vigo, P. Frs. La Fontaine, Ast. Lasselle, Sworn
interpreters. H. Lasselle, Wm. Wells, Js. Beau Bien, Jacques Lasselle,
David Jones, Chaplain U.S.S. M. Morins, Lewis Beaufait, Bt. Sans
Crainte, R. Lachambre, Christopher Miller, Jas. Pepen, Robert Wilson,
Baties Coutien, Abraham Williams, his x mark P. Navarre. Isaac Zane,
his x mark.
Photo above: Painting of the Treaty of Greenville, 1795, Member of
General Wayne's Staff. Courtesy Wikipedia Commons. Photo below: Wood
engraving of the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794, 1850 to
1860, Lossing and Barritt. Courtesy Library of Congress. Info source:
Indian Affairs : Laws and Treaties
Vol II (Treaties), Compiled and Edited By Charles J. Kappler LL. M.
Clerk to the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, Washington, DC:
Government Printing Office, 1904, via the Avalon Project, Documents in
Law, History, and Diplomacy, Yale University Law School; National Park
Service; Fallentimbersbattlefield.com; Wikipedia Commons.
Message from George
Washington sending vote of New Hampshire on the
Bill of Rights. Photo courtesy National Archives.
General Anthony Wayne. Image courtesy National Archives.
Washington gave up the presidency after his second
term in 1797, it may have been the most remarkable event in U.S.
history. It was the first time a leader gave up power
willingly in a democratic shift to another man. Image courtesy National Archives.
America's Best History where we take a look
at the timeline of American History and the historic sites and national
parks that hold that history within their lands.
Photos courtesy of the Library of Congress, National Archives,
National Park Service, americasbesthistory.com & its licensors.