Hudson Bay Company

Picture above: Drawing of a canoe voyage of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1825, Peter Rindisbacher. Courtesy Library and Archives Canada via Wikipedia Commons. Right: Drawing of New Amsterdam, 1664, Johannes Vingboons. Courtesy Wikipedia Commons.

New Amsterdam

Pre-Revolution Timeline - The 1600s


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  • 1667 Detail

    July 31, 1667 - Treaty of Breda ends the Second Anglo-Dutch War, with colonial boundaries set between Acadia, recognized as part of New France, the British colonies of New England, and the Dutch colonies around the world.

    Treaty of Breda

    Yes, it's very confusing. The Anglo-Dutch Wars were four fold, and the peace established in between them short lived. The Second Anglo-Dutch War would begin on March 4, 1665 when the Dutch declared war against England after an attack on two Dutch convoys in the English Channel and near Cadiz. It would last for two years. Why did this one begin? Well, King Charles II had only been on the thrown for four years, and he had lots of personal ambition, which extended into commercial enterprises and stipends, plus a desire to reduce his dependence on Parliament. He had founded the Royal African Company to parlay against the monopoly of commerce of the Dutch East India and Dutch West India Companies.

    King Charles II and England thought that a war with their Dutch adversary would be a quick and profitable venture and reset their goals of being the successful commercial nation against the Dutch adversary. It was not quick, and with other elements at play, a plague and lessening commercial growth, it would eventually end as much because of pressure from those same commercial interests as it would from the desire for victory.

    So how did the French become involved? They, after failure at mediation, due in large part to a treaty to aid the Dutch signed on April 27, 1662, eventually joined the war on January 16, 1666 against the English due to concerns over the Spanish Netherlands. What about the Danes? England had hoped for their assistance, but alas, they joined the Dutch as an adversary. England did have Sweden; they had signed a treaty of mutual defense in 1665, but remained neutral. The French King, Louis XIV, had paid them to stay out of it. Their diplomats did partake in the Peace of Breda, seeking to craft a solution that would satisfy their aims in Europe and the New World.

    So what did that have to do with the American colonies? For one, Sweden sided with England because they didn't want the Dutch to lay further claims to New Sweden, i.e. Delaware, which was a bit odd because New Sweden had been defeated by New Netherlands in 1655, although New Netherlands had somewhat allowed it to continue autonomously prior to its takeover by the British one year earlier. New Netherlands, yes lost to the English in 1664, was still in play, however, with Dutch hopes for restoration of their original colony.

    Components of the Treaty of Breda

    The Peace of Breda began with negotiations on June 4, 1667, at Breda Castle between representatives of England, the Netherlands, France, Denmark, and Sweden, as mediator. However, tensions still plied. While talks were underway, the Dutch sent ships up the Thames on June 24, 1667, and attacked the British. The Dutch gained an advantage in terms after that surprise. The Dutch would get a relaxation of the Navigation Act of 1651, and be allowed to transport German goods to England. There would be concessions to England as well. Territory taken prior to the war would not be transferred back. Therefore, England got to keep New York (New Amsterdam), as well as previous Dutch territory in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. The Dutch would retain possessions in the East Indies, including Surinam and Pulo Run, although England would retain several Dutch colonies in the Caribbean. For the French, they got a concession from England, who gave up their rights to New France settlements in Acadia and Penobscot. The Massachusetts colonies objected to this, thinking that the return of Nova Scotia to New France would harm the fur and fishing trades and be dangerous if war came again.

    Because the opponents in the Second Anglo-Dutch War were not just England and the Netherlands, but included Norway, Denmark, and France, plus their colonial allies, the Treaty of Breda (Peace of Breda) became what was essentially four treaties. There was the Treaty of Peace and Alliance Between Great Britain and Netherlands; a Commercial Treaty Between England and the Netherlands; a Treaty of Peace Between Denmark-Norway and Great Britain; and a Treaty of Peace Between France and Great Britain.

    The treaties were to take effect on August 14 (24), 1667.

    They should not have bothered. By 1672, England and the Netherlands were engaged in the Third Anglo-Dutch War. T-Shirts and Gifts

    Select Text, Treaty of Breda

    1. First, that from this day there shall be a true, firm, and inviolable peace, a more sincere friendship, a closer and stricter alliance and union between the Most Serene King of Great Britain and the High and Mighty States General of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and the lands, countries, and cities under the obedience of both parties, wheresoever situate, and their subjects and inhabitants, of whatsoever degree they may be.

    2. Also, that for the time to come, all enmities, hostilities, discords, and wars, between the said lord king, and the aforesaid lords States General, and their subjects and inhabitants, shall cease and be abolished; and that both parties shall altogether forbear and abstain from all plundering, depredation, wrongs, injuries, and molestation whatsoever, as well by land as by sea and in fresh waters everywhere, and especially in all regions, dominions, places, and governments (of what condition soever they may be) within the jurisdiction of either party.

    3. Also, that all offences, injuries, damages, and losses, which the said Lord King and his subjects, or the aforesaid lords the States General and their subjects, have on either side sustained, during this war or at any time whatsoever heretofore, upon any cause or pretext whatsoever, be buried in oblivion, and completely erased from memory, as if no such things had ever occurred. But in order that the aforesaid peace, friendship, and alliance may stand upon firm and unshaken foundations, and that from this very day all occasions of new dissensions and differences may be cut off, it is further agreed that both of the aforesaid parties, or either of them, shall keep and possess hereafter, with plenary right of sovereignty, property, and possession, all such lands, islands, cities, forts, places, and colonies (how many soever) as during this war, or in any former times before this war, by force of arms, or in any other way they have seized or retained from the other party, and this precisely in the manner in which they were seized of and possessed them on the tenth day of May last past, none of the said places being excepted.

    4. Moreover, that all ships, with their equipment, and cargoes, and all movable goods which during this war, or at any time heretofore, have come into the power of either of the aforesaid parties, or of their subjects, shall be and remain to the present possessors, without any compensation or restitution; so that each may become and remain proprietor and possessor in perpetuity of that which has been thus seized, without any controversy or exception of place, time, or things.

    5. Moreover, that all actions and pretensions, whatsoever they be, or in manner soever they have been restricted, circumscribed, defined, or reserved in any former articles of peace or alliance (and especially in the fifteenth article of those which were signed in the year 1662) which the said lord the king and the said lords States General, or their subjects, may or would attempt, institute, or move against one another about such matters or events as have happened during this war or in any former times, before as well as after the aforesaid treaty of 1662, up to the day of this present alliance, be and remain void, obliterated, and annulled; as the said lord king and the said lords States General have declared and they do hereby declare, that by virtue of these presents they will forever utterly renounce, even as hereby they do renounce, all such actions and pretensions, for themselves and their successors, so that on account of them nothing further may or should be urged on either side, nor any controversy engaged in hereafter.

    Image above: Drawing of the peace negotiations between England and the Netherlands for the Treaty of Breda, 1667, Romeyn de Hooghe. Courtesy Rijksmuseum via Wikipedia Commons. Image below: Painting of Acadians, 1751, Samuel Scott. Courtesy Art Gallery of Nova Scotia via Wikipedia Commons. Info source: Oxford Public International Law; Wikipedia; European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies, Frances Gardiner Davenport, Volume II, 1650-1697, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1929;; "Sweden and the Treaty of Breda in 1667 - Swedish diplomats help to end the naval warfare between the Dutch Republic and England," Frans Gooskens.


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