Top: George Washington. Commander of the
Continental Army and 1st President of the U.S.A. Courtesy NARA. Right: Surrender at Yorktown. Courtesy Library of Congress.
U.S. Timeline - The 1780s
The Nascent Democracy, U.S. Trade with China
Sponsor this page for $100 per year. Your banner or text ad can fill the space above.
Click here to Sponsor the page and how to reserve your ad.
May 11, 1785 - Empress of China, captained by John Green, becomes the first American ship to trade with China when it returns to New York after a fourteen month journey. A second journey by Stewart Dean, an Albany navigator and Revolutionary War privateer, begins December 18, 1785, further establishing the Old China Trade with the Qing Empire. Dean, on the private schooner Nimrod, had been captured by the British at St. Kitts in 1782, and later released.
The United States, now a new nation fresh off its victory in the Revolutionary War, sought trade with the Orient. It had experienced privateers, now transitioning to merchant seaman, who were willing to venture west and seek trade with China. John Green was a U.S. naval officer; Robert Morris and Daniel Parker, among others, formed a syndicate of entrepreneurs willing to finance a ship and voyage there and start trade. The Empress of China, a privateer of three hundred and sixty tons, built in Boston 1783, was now outfitted for commercial cargo. It left New York on February 22, 1784, Washington's birthday, with Green in command.
The ship contained thirty tons of Appalachian ginseng worth $240,000, fifty tons of cordage, thirty tons of lead, plus planking, wine, and cloth. Total value of the cargo, $270,000. Yes, apparently ginseng was valuable. The voyage left Canton on December 28, 1784, purchasing eight hundred chests of tea, twenty thousand pair of pants, and porcelain. Fourteen months after leaving New York, they would return from Canton. The Old China Trade with the Xing Dynasty had been started. The voyage made a substantial profit, twenty-five percent.
On December 18, 1785, Stewart Dean partnered with Teunis Ven Veckten with backing by New York investors. They outfitted his smaller ship, eight-five and one-half tons, the Experiment, for the journey. It would carry two ten pound carriage guns, and a cargo of ginseng (smaller quantity), alcohol, furs, and tobacco. Total value of their cargo, $4,143. They made a profit (sale of $7,549) on the items, but not the journey (additional expenses of $4,679). They would return with bought goods; tea, twenty-six chests of tea cups and saucers, five chests of breakfast china, and eighty bales of pants.
John Green and Stewart Dean
John Green - Born in 1736, Green was commissioned a captain in the U.S. Continental Navy during the Revolution, and was involved in the last major naval battle of the war. On March 10, 1783, commanding the ship Duc De Lauzon with the ship Alliance alongside commanded by John Barry, encountered two British frigates between Palm Beach and Cape Canaveral.
Stewart Dean - Born in Maryland and schooled as an apprentice seaman, Dean had ventured to the West Indies on his schooner in 1771 to trade flour and lumber. Five years later, with the Revolutionary War in full battle, Dean volunteered as a privateer, sailing the Caribbean Atlantic for the cause, venturing to Johnston and the Mohawk Valley on land expeditions, and in 1892, built a privateer schooner named Nimrod. It sailed to the West Indies, encountered the British while anchored, and was captured. Dean and the ship were later released.
Old China Trade
Begun with the voyages of Green and Dean, the old China Trade centered around the city of Canton, today's Guangzhou. Samuel Shaw, aide to General Knox during the American Revolution, accompanied John Green and the Empress of China on their initial voyage and negotiated the trade. Trade with China was ongoing under the Canton System with other European nations, including the British, French, Dutch, and Danish. Shaw would continue to advise American firms to the China trade. An American consul, prohibited from flying the American flag over its factory, upon first introduction through the end of the century, was not officially recognized by Chinese authorities. Old China Trade continued until the Treaty of Wanghia in 1844.
Full Text, Treaty of Wanghia
UNITED states of AMERICA.
TREATY OF PEACE, AMITY, AND COMMERCE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE CHINESE EMPIRE.
Signed at Wanghia (near Macao) in the Etiglish and Chinese
Languages, July, 1844.
Ratifications exchanged at Canton, December, 1843.
The United States of America and the Ta Tsing Empire, desiring
to establish firm, lasting and sincere friendship between the two nations, have resolved to fix, in a manner clear and positive, by means of a Treaty, or general Convention of peace, amity, and commerce, the rules which shall in future be mutually observed in the intercourse of their respective countries ; for which most desirable object, the President of the United States has conferred full powers on their Commissioner Caleb Cushing, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to China; and the August Sovereign of the Ta Tsing Empire, on his Minister and Commissioner Kiyiiig. Extraordinary Kiying, of the Imperial House, a vice-guardian of the heirapparent,Governor-General of the Two Kwang, and Superintendent - General of the trade and foreign intercourse of the five ports. And the said Commissioners, after having exchanged their said full powers, and duly considered the premises, have agreed to the following
Art. I. - There shall be a perfect, permanent and universal
peace, and a sincere and cordial amity, between the United States of America on the one part, and the Ta Tsing Empire on the other part, and between their people respectively, without exception of persons or places.
Duties to be Art. II. - Citizens of the United States, resorting to China for the purposes of commerce, will pay the duties of import and export Treaty. prescribed in the tariff, which is fixed by and made a part of this Treaty. They shall in no case be subject to other or higher duties than are or shall be required of the people of any other nation whatever. Fees and charges of every sort are wholly abolished, and officers of the revenue who may be guilty of exaction shall be punished according to the laws of China. If the Chinese Government desire to modify in any respect the said tariff, such modifications shall be made only in
consultation with Consuls or other functionaries thereto duly authorized in behalf of the United States, and with consent thereof. And if additional advantages or privileges of whatever description be conceded hereafter by China to any other nation, the United States and the citizens thereof shall be entitled thereupon to a complete, equal and impartial participation in the same.
Art. III. - The citizens of the United States are permitted to Trade mi frequent the five ports of Kwangchau, Amoy, Fiihchau, Ningpo and five ports Shanghai, and to reside with their families and to proceed at pleasure, with their vessels and merchandise to or from any foreign port, and from either of the said five ports to any other of them. But said vessels shall not unlawfully enter the other ports of China, nor carry on a clandestine and fraudulent trade along the coasts thereof And any vessel, belonging to a citizen of the United States, which violates
this provision, shall with her cargo be subject to confiscation to the Chinese Government.
Art. IV. - For the superintendence and regulation of the concerns consul to be of the citizens of the United States doing business at the said five ports, the Government of the United States may appoint Consuls, or other officers, at the same, who shall be duly recognized as such by the officers of the Chinese Government, and shall hold official intercourse and correspondence with the latter, either personal or in writing, as
occasion may require, on terms of equality and reciprocal respect. If disrespectfully treated or aggrieved in any way by the local authorities, the said officers on the one hand shall have the right to make representation of the same to the superior officers of the Chinese Government, who will see that full inquiry and strict justice be had in the premises; and on the other hand, the said Consuls will carefully avoid all acts of unnecessary offense to, or collision with, the officers
and people of China.
Art. V. - At each of the said five ports, citizens of the United import and States lawfully engaged in commerce, shall be permitted to import from their own or any other ports into China, and sell there, and purchase therein and export to their own or any other ports, all manner of merchandise, of which the importation or exportation is not prohibited by this Treaty, paving the duties which are pre scribed by the tariff hereinbefore estab lished, and no other charges whatsoever.
Art. VI. - Whenever anymerchant vessel belonging to the United Rate of States shall enter either of the said five ports for trade, her papers to be paid. shall be lodged with the Consul, or person charged with affairs, who will report the same to the Commissioner of Customs; and tonnage duty shall be paid on said vessel at the rate of five mace per ton, if she be over one hundred and fifty tons burden; and one mace per ton, if
she be of the burden of one hundred and fifty tons or under, according to the amount of her tonnage as specified in the register; said payment to be in full of the former charges of measurement and other fees, which are wholly abolished. And if any vessel, which, having anchored at one of the said ports, and there paid tonnage duty, shall have occasion to go to any others of the said ports to complete the disposal of her cargo, the Consul or person charged with affairs, will report the same to the Commissioner of Customs, who, on the departure of the said vessel, shall note on the port-clearance that the tonnage duties have been paid, and report the same to the other Custom-houses : in which case, on entering another port, the said vessel will only pay duty there on her cargo, but shall not be subject
to the payment of tonnage duty a second time.
Art. VII. - No tonnage duty shall be required on boats belonging Boats with pass-to citizens of the United States, employed in the conveyance of passengers, baggage, letters, and articles of provision, or others not Tonnage Duty, subject to duty, to or from any of the five ports. All cargo boats, however, conveying merchandise subject to duty, shall pay the regular tonnage duty of one mace per ton, provided they belong to citizens of the United Slates, but not if hired by them from subjects of China.
Art. VIII. - Citizens of the United States, for their vessels bound in, shall be allowed to engage pilots, who will report said vessels at the passes, and take them into port; and when the lawful duties have all been paid, they may engage pilots to leave port. It shall also be lawful for them to hire at pleasure, servants, compradores, linguists, and writers, and passage or cargo boats; and to employ laboreis, seamen, and. persons for whatever necessary service for a reasonable compensation to be agreed on by the parties, or settled by application to the consular officer of their government without interference on the
part of the local oflficers of the Chinese Government.
Art. IX. - Whenever merchant vessels belonging to the United
States shall have entered port, the Superintendent of Customs will, if he see fit, appoint Custom-house ofiScers to guard said vessels, who may live on board the ship or their own boats at their convenience; but provision for the subsistence of said officers shall be made by the Superintendent of Customs, and they shall not be entitled to any allowance from the vessel or owner thereof; and they shall be subject to suitable punishment for any exaction practised by them in violation of this regulation.
Art. X. - Whenever a merchant vessel belonging to the United
States shall cast anchor in either of the said port.s, the supercargo, master, or consignee will, within forty-eight hours, deposit the ship's papers in the hands of the Consul, or person charged with the affairs of the United States, who will cause to be communicated to the Superintendent of Customs a true report of the name and tonnage of such vessel, the names other men, and of the cargo on board, which being done, the superintendent will give a permit for the discharge of her cargo. And the master, supercargo, or consignee, if he proceed to discharge the cargo without such permit, shall incur a fine of five hundred dollars, and the goods so discharged without permit shall be subject to forfeiture to the Chinese Government. But if the master
of any vessel in port desire to discharge a part only of the cargo, it shall be lawful for him to do so, paying duty on such part only, and to proceed with the remainder to any other ports. Or, if the master so desire, he may within forty-eight hours after the arrival of the vessel, but not later, decide to depart without breaking bulk; in which case he will not be subject to pay tonnage or other duties or charges, until, on his arrival at another port, he shall proceed to discharge cargo when he will pay the duties on vessel and cargo according to law. And the tonnage duties shalU be held to be due after the expiration of said forty-eight hours.
Art. XI. - The Superintendent of Customs, in order to the
collection of the proper duties, will, on application made to him through the Consul, appoint suitable officers, who shall proceed, in the presence of the captain, supercargo, or consignee, to make a just and fair examination of all goods in the act of being discharged for importation, or laden for exportation on board any merchant vessel of the United States. And if dispute occur in regard to the value of goods subject to an ad valorem duty, or in regard to the amount of tare, and the same cannot be satisfactorily arranged by the parties, the question
may within twenty-four hours, and not afterwards, be referred to the said Consul to adjust with the Superintendent of Customs.
Art. XII. - Sets of standard bajances, and also weights and
measures duly prepared, stamped, and sea;kd, according to the standard of the Custom-house at Canton, shall be delivered by the Superintendent of Customs to the Consuls at each of the five ports, to secure uniformity, and prevent confusion in measures and weights of merchandise.
Art. XII. - The tonnage duly on vessels belonging to citizens Duties to be of the United States shall be paid on their being admitted to entry, Duties of import shall be paid on the discharge of the goods, and duties of export on the lading of the same. When all such duties shall have been paid, and not before, the Superintendent of Customs shall give a port-clearance, and the Consul shall return the ship's papers, so that she may depart on her voyage. The duties shall be paid to the shroffs authorized by the Chinese Government to receive the same in its behalf. Duties payable by merchants of the United States shall be
received either in sycee silver or in foreign money, at the rate of exchange as ascertained by the regulations now in force. And
imported goods, on their re-sale or transit in any part of the Empire, shall be subject to the imposition of no higher duty than they are accustomed to pay at the date of this Treaty.
Art. XIV. - No goods on board any merchant vessel of the United Transhipment of States in part are to be transiiipped to another vessel, unless tiiere be particular occasion therefor; in which case the occasion shall be certified by the Consul to the Superintendent of Customs, who may appoint officeis to examine into the facts, and permit the transhipment. And if any goods be transhipped without such application, inquir)', and permit, they shall be subject to be forfeited to the Chinese Government.
Art. XV. - The former limitation of the trade of foreign nations Trade with U.S. to certain persons appointed at Canton by the Government, and commonly called hong-merchants, having been abolished, citizens of Chinese, the United States engaged in the purchase or sale of goods of import or export, are admitted to trade with any and all subjects of China without distinction; they shall not be subject to any new limitations, nor impeded in their business by monopolies or other injurious restrictions.
Art, XVI. - -The Chinese Governinent will not hold itself respon- Governments sible for any debts which may happen to be due from subjects of China to citizens of the United States, or for frauds committed by them; but subjects. citizens of the United States may seek redress in law; and on suitable representation being made to the Chinese local authorities through the Consul, they will cause due examination in the premises, and take all proper steps to compel satisfaction. But in case the debtor be dead or
without property, or have absconded, the creditor cannot be indemnified according to the old system of the co-hong so called. And if citizens of the United States be indebted to subjects of China, the latter may seek redress in the same way through the Consul, but without any responsibihty for the debt on the part of the United States.
Art. XVII. - Citizens of the United States, residing or sojourning Facilities to be at any of the ports open to foreign commerce, shall enjoy all proper enjoyed at ports, accommodation in obtaining houses and places of business, or in hiring
sites from the inhabitants on which to construct houses and places of business, and also hospitals, churches and cemeteries. The local authorities of the two Governments shall select in concert the sites for the foregoing objects, having due regard to the feelings of the people in the location thereof; and the parties interested will fix the rent by mutual agreement, the proprietors, on the one hand not demanding an exorbitant price, nor the merchants on the other reasonably insisting on particular spots, but each conducting with justice and moderation. And any desecration of said cemeteries by subjects of China, shall be severely punished according to law. At the places of anchorage of the vessels of the United States, the citizens of the United States, merchants, seamen, or others sojourning there, may
pass and repass in the immediate neighbourhood; but they shall not at their pleasure make excursions into the country among the villages at large, nor shall they repair to public marts for the purpose of disposing of goods unlawfully, and in fraud of the revenue. And iri order to the preservation of the public peace, the local officers of government at each of the five ports shall, in concert with the Consuls, define the limits beyond which it shall not be lawful for citizens of the United States to go.
Art. XVIII. - It shall be lawful for the officers or citizens of the United States to employ scholars and people of any part of China, without distinction of persons, to teach any of the languages of the Empire, and to assist in literary labors; and the persons so employed shall not for that cause be subject to any injury on the part either of the government or of individuals ; and it shall, in the like manner, be lawful for citizens of the United States to purchase all manner of books in China.
Art. XIX. - All citizens of the United States in China peaceably
attending to their affairs, being placed on a common footing of amity and goodwill with subjects of China, shall receive and enjoy for themselves, and everything appertaining to them, the special protection of the local authorities of government, who shall defend them from all insult or injury of any sort on the part of the Chinese. If their dwelling or property be threatened or attacked by mobs, incendiaries, or other violent and lawless persons, the local officers, on requisition of the Consul, will immediately dispatch a military force to disperse the rioters, and will apprehend the guilty individuals, and punish them with the utmost rigor of the law.
Art. XX. - Citizens of the United States who may have imported
merchandise into any of the free ports of China, and paid the duty thereon, if they desire to export the same in part or in whole to any other of the said ports, shall be entitled to make application through their Consul, to the Superintendent of Customs, who, in order to prevent frauds on the revenue, shall cause examination to be made by suitable ofificers to see that the duties paid on such goods as are entered on the Custom-house books, correspond with the representation made, and that the goods remain with their original marks uncharged, and
shall then make a memorandum in the port-clearance of the goods
and the amount of duties paid on the same, and deliver the same to the merchant, and shall also certify the facts to the officers of Customs of the other ports; all which being done, on the arrival in port of the vessel in which the goods are laden, and everything being found on examination there to correspond, she shall be permitted to break bulk, and land the said goods without being subject to the payment of any additional duty thereon. But if, on such examinations, the Superintendent of Customs shall detect any fraud on the revenue in the case, then the goods shall be subject to forfeiture and confiscation to the Chinese Government.
Art. XXI. - Subjects of China, who may be guilty of any criminal
act towards citizens of the United States, shall be arrested and
punished by the Chinese authorities according to the laws of China. And citizens of Unite4 States, who may commit any crime in
China, shall be subject to be tried and punished only by the Consul, or other public functionary of the United States thereto authorized, according to the laws of the United States. And in order to the prevention of all controversy and disaffection, justice shall be equitably and impartially administered on both sides.
Art. XXII. - Relations of peace and amity between the United American States and China being established by this Treaty, and the vessels of the United States being admitted to trade freely to and from the five ports of China open to foreign commerce, it is further agreed, that if in case, at any time hereafter, China should be at war with any foreign nation whatever, and should for that cause exclude such nation from entering her ports, still the vessels of the United States shall not the less continue to pursue their commerce in freedom and security, and to transport goods to and from the ports of the belligerent parties, full
respect being paid to the neutrality of the flag of the United States: Provided, that the said flag shall not protect vessels engaged in the transportation of officers or soldiers in the enemy's service; nor shall said flag be fraudulently used to enable the enemy's ships with their cargoes to enter the ports of China ; but all such vessels so offending shall be subject to forfeiture and confiscation to the Chinese Government.
Art. XXIII. - The Consuls of the United States at each of the u. s. Trade five ports open to foreign trade shall make annually to the respective "port" to be Governors-General thereof a detailed report of the number of vessels to the Governor-belonging to the United States which have entered and left said ports during the year, and of the amount and value of goods imported or exported in said vessels, for transmission to aiid inspection of the
Board of Revenue.
Art. XXIV. - If citizens of the United States have special occa- settlement of sion to address any communication to the Chinese local officers and government, they shall submit the same to their Consul, or other crimes. officer, to determine if the language be proper and respectful, and the matter just and right ; in which event, he shall transmit the same to the appropriate authorities for their consideration and action in the premises. In like manner, if subjects of China have special occasion
to address the Consul of the United States, they shall submit the
communication to the local authorities of their own government, to determine if the language be respectful and proper, and the matter just and right; in which case the said authorities will transmit the same to the Consul or other officer for his consideration and action in the premises. And if controversies arise between citizens of the United States and subjects of China, which cannot be amicably settled otherwise, the same shall be examined and decided conformably to justice and equity by the public officers of the two nations acting in conjunction.
Art. XXV. - All questions in regard to rights, whether of American eto property or person, arising between citizens of the United States in China, shall be subject to the jurisdiction, and regulated by the authorities of their own government. And all controversies occurring in China between citizens of the United States and the subjects of any other Government shall be regulated by the Treaties existing between the United States and such Governments respectively, without interference on the part of China.
Art. XXVI. - Merchant vessels of the United States, lying in consuls to the waters of the five ports of China open to foreign commerce, will pirace be under the jurisdiction of the officers of their own government ,who. with the master and owners thereof, will manage the same without control on 'the part of China. For injuries done to the citizens or the commerce of the United States by any foreign power, the Chinese Government will not hold itself bound to make reparation. But if the merchant vessels of the United States, while within the waters over which the Chinese Government exercises jurisdiction, be plundered by robbers or pirates, then the Chinese local authorities, civil and military, on receiving information thereof, will arrest the said robbers or. pirates, and punish them according to law, and will cause all the property which can be i-ecovered to be placed in the hands of the nearest Consul, or other officers of the United States, to be by him restored to the true owner. But if, by reason of the extent of territory and numerous population of China, it should in any case happen that the robbers cannot be apprehended, or the property only in part recovered, then the law will take its course in regard to the local authorities, but
the Chinese Government will not make indemnity for the goods lost.
Art. XXVII. - If any vessel oftte United States shall be wrecked
or stranded on the coast of China, and be subjected to plunder or
other damage, the proper officers of government, on receiving information of the fact, will immediately adopt measures for their relief and security ; and the persons on board shall receive friendly treatment, and be enabled at once to repair to the most convenient of the five ports, and shall enjoy all facilities for obtaining supplies of provisions and water. And if a vessel shall be forced, in whatever way, to take refuge in any port other than one of the five ports, then in like manner the persons on board shall receive friendly treatment, and the means of safety and security.
Art. XXVIII. - Citizens of the United States, their vessels and
property, shall not be subject to any embargo; nor shall they be
seized or forcibly detained for any pretence of the public service: but they shall be suffered to prosecute their commerce in quiet, and without molestation or embarrassment.
Art. XXIX. - The local authorities of the Chinese Government
will cause to be apprehended all mutineers or deserters from on board the vessels of the United States in China, and will deliver them up to the Consuls or other officers for punishment. And if criminals, subjects of China, take refuge in the houses or on board the vessels of citizens of the United States, they shall not be harboured or concealed, but shall be delivered up to justice, on due requisition by the Chinese local officers, addressed to those of the United States. The merchants, seamen, and other citizens of the United States shall be under the su perintendence of the appropriate officers of their gov e rnments. If individuals of either nation commit acts of violence and disorder, use arms to the injury of others, or create disturbances endangering life, the officers of the two Governments will exert themselves to enforce order, and to maintain the public peace, by doing impartial justice in the premises.
Art. XXX. - The superior authorities of the United States and
of China, in corresponding together, shall do so in terms of equality, and in the form of mutual communication (cMu hwui). The Consuls and the local officers, civil and military, in corresponding together, shall likewise employ the style and form of mutual communication (chau hwui). When inferior officers of the one Government address superior officers of the other, they shall do so in the style and form of memorial (shin chin). Private individuals in addressing superior officers shall employ the style of petition (pin ching). In no case shall any terms or style be suffered which shall be offensive or dis-respectful to either party. And it is agreed that no presents, under any pretext or form whatever shall ever be demanded of the United States by China, or of China by the United States.
Art. XXXI. - Communications from the Government of the United
States to the Court of China shall be transmitted through the medium of the Imperial Commissioner charged with the superintendence of the concerns of foreign nations with China, or through the Governors-General of the Liang Kwang, that of Min and Cheh^ or that of the Liang Kiang.
Art. XXXIL - Whenever ships of war of the United States, in ships of war cruising for the protection of the commerce of their country, shall arrive at any of the ports of China, the Commanders of said ships, and the superior local authorities of government shall hold intercourse together in terms of equality and courtesy, in token of the friendly relations of their respective nations. And the said ships of war shall enjoy all suitable facilities on the part of the Chinese Government in the purchase of provisions, procuring water, and making repairs, if occasion require.
Art. XXXIII. - Citizens of the United States, who shall attempt clandestine to trade clandestinely with such of the ports of China as are not open disoiimved? to foreign commerce, or who shall trade in opium or any other contraband article of merchandise, shall be subject to be dealt with by the Chinese Government, without being entitled to any countenance or protection from that of the United States ; and the United States will take measures to prevent their flag from being abused by the subjects of other nations, as a cover for the violation of the laws of the Empire.
Art. XXXIV. - When the present Convention shall have been Revision of thi definitively concluded, it shall be obligatory on both powers, and its provisions shall not be altered without grave cause ; but, inasmuch as the circumstances of the several ports of China open to foreign commerce are different, experience may show that inconsiderable modifications are requisite in those parts which relate to commerce and navigation in which case the two Governments will, at the expiration of twelve years from the date of said Convention, treat amicably concerning the same, by the means of suitable persons appointed to conduct such negotiation.
And when ratified, this Treaty shall be faithfully observed in all its parts by the United States and China, and by every citizen and subject of each. And no individual state of the United States can appoint or send a Minister to China to call in question the provisions of the same.
The present Treaty of peace, amity, and commerce shall be ratified and approved By the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by the August Sovereign of the Ta Tsing Empire ; and the ratifications shall be exchanged within eighteen months from the date of the signature thereof, or sooner if possible.
In faith whereof, we, the respective Plenipotentiaries of the United States of America, and of the Ta Tsing Empire, as aforesaid, have signed and sealed these presents.
Done at Wanghia, this third day of July, in the year of our Lord
Jesus Christ, one thousand eight hundred and forty-four, and of
Tau Kwang, the twenty-fourth year, fifth month, and eighteenth day.
[L.S.] (Signed) C. GUSHING.
[L.S.] (Signed) ^ TSIYENQ.
Photo above: Image of the Empress of China, 1876, in the port at Mart's Jetty, Port Pirie, A.D. Edwards. Courtesy Wikipedia Commons. Below: Painting of the Thirteen Factories at Guangzhou with flags of Denmark, Spain, United States, Sweden, Britain, and Netherlands, Author unknown, circa 1820. Source: Wikipedia Commons; Hoxsie.com; Peabody Essex Museum; New York State Museum. William J. Wilgus, The Life of Captain Stewart Dean: A Character of the American Revolution (Ascutney, VT, 1942). The Voyage of the Empress of China, John W. Swift, P. Hodgkinson and Samuel W. Woodhouse, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography Vol. 63, No. 1 (Jan., 1939), pp. 24-36; New England Historical Society; Founderspatriots.org; Unbecoming British: How Revolutionary America Became a Postcolonial Nation
By Kariann Akemi Yokota; archive.org.
History Photo Bomb