History Timeline 1920's

Photo above: Prohibition Era Brewery. Courtesy National Archives. Right: Photo montage, images courtesy Library of Congress.

American Football

U.S. Timeline - The 1920s

Prosperity and Its Demise



Sponsor this page for $75 per year. Your banner or text ad can fill the space above.
Click here to Sponsor the page and how to reserve your ad.


  • Timeline

  • 1921-2 Detail

    November 12, 1921 - The Limitation on Armaments Congress convenes in Washington, D.C.

    February 6, 1922 - The Armaments Congress ends. It would lead to three agreements, including the Five Power Disarmament Treaty, between the major world powers and the United States, to limit naval construction, outlaw poison gas, restrict submarine attacks on merchant fleets and respect China's sovereignty.

    Armaments Conference


    There was about to be a well meaning mistake made, one that would not be known until a decade and one half later, although it was presaged with another treaty, the London Naval Reduction Treaty in 1930, when it started to show signs of fray. But so are the hazards of arms treaties with nations that don't necessarily wish to stay friends and keep its terms.

    It was a new decade, with the battles of World War I behind them, a Treaty of Versailles signed and ratified by most, and a Congressional resolution signed by others. Despite those documents, there was a lot of concern in Congress and amongst the international community that an arms race was about to begin, particulary with the two main competitors to the United States on the seas; Great Britain and Japan. Senator William E. Borah of Idaho led the Congressional effort for disarmament negotiations. Secretary of State, Charles Evans Hughes, would put that idea into action with a proposal for an arms conference in 1921, to be held in Washington on an effort to disarm, as well as address the situation rising in the Far East.

    Nine nations were invited; the United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan, in an effort that would eventually lead the following year to the Five Powers Agreement on disarmament, but that was not all. An effort with the United States, China, Netherlands, Portugal, and Belgium, as well, would address the situation in the Pacific. There would be three treaties signed; the Four Power Treaty, the Nine Power Treaty, as well as the Five Power Treaty, which we will discuss here.

    The Five Power Treaty focused on limiting the amount of naval power that the five major nations on the water could keep, build, and use. While some contend that it was a success, it seems odd to contend that. An effort so large, which not only did not foresee the effort to build cruiser class ships after its signing (a class not addressed in the treaty), but did not foresee that its eventual enemies during World War II (Japan and Italy) were not on the same page within a dozen years, hard to call it a success. When you add in the fact that another potential enemy, Germany, was not thought at threat and needed to include, well, it was at best a postponement of the same problem.

    But that, of course, is hindsight. When the conference opened on November 12, 1921, President Warren Harding was hopeful in his words that their effort would bear lasting fruit.


    Warren Harding Speech


    Gentlemen of the Conference, the United States welcomes you with unselfish hands. We harbor no fears; we have no sordid ends to serve; we suspect no enemy; we contemplate or apprehend no conquest. Content with what we have, we seek nothing which is another's. We only wish to do with you that finer, nobler thing which no nation can do alone.

    We wish to sit with you at the table of international understanding and good will. In good conscience we are eager to meet you frankly, and invite and offer cooperation. The world demands a sober contemplation of the existing order and the realization that there can be no cure without sacrifice, not by one of us, but by all of us.

    I do not mean surrendered rights, or narrowed freedom, or denied aspirations, or ignored national necessities. Our republic would no more ask for these than it would give. No pride need be humbled, no nationality submerged, but I would have a mergence of minds committing all of us to less preparation for war and more enjoyment of fortunate peace.

    The higher hopes come of the spirit of our coming together. It is but just to recognize varying needs and peculiar positions. Nothing can be accomplished in disregard of national apprehensions. Rather, we should act together to remove the causes of apprehensions. This is not to be done in intrigue. Greater assurance is found in the exchange of simple honesty and directness among men resolved to accomplish as becomes leaders among nations, when civilization itself has come to its crucial test.

    It is not to be challenged that government fails when the excess of its cost robs the people of the way to happiness and the opportunity to achieve. If the finer sentiments were not urging, the cold, hard facts of excessive cost and the eloquence of economics would urge us to reduce our armaments. If the concept of a better order does not appeal, then let us ponder the burden and the blight of continued competition.

    It is not to be denied that the world has swung along throughout the ages without heeding this call from the kindlier hearts of men. But the same world never before was so tragically brought to realization of the utter futility of passion's sway when reason and conscience and fellowship point a nobler way.

    I can speak officially only for our United States. Our hundred millions frankly want less of armament and none of war. Wholly free from guile, sure in our own minds that we harbor no unworthy designs, we accredit the world with the same good intent. So I welcome you, not alone in good will and high purpose, but with high faith.

    We are met for a service to mankind. In all simplicity, in all honesty and all honor, there may be written here the avowals of world conscience refined by the consuming fires of war, and made more sensitive by the anxious aftermath. I hope for that understanding which will emphasize the guarantees of peace, and for commitments to less burdens and a better order which will tranquilize the world. In such an accomplishment there will be added glory to your flags and ours, and the rejoicing of mankind will make the transcending music of all succeeding time.


    More About the Washington Naval Conference


    The conference was held outside the efforts of the newly minted League of Nations, established 1920, and did not include Soviet Russia. It was regarded as the first arms control conference in history, held in Memorial Continental Hall, Washington, D.C., home of the Daughters of the American Revolution. The goal of the United States was to limit the power of Japan in the Pacific Ocean; the goal of the Japanese was to limit the presence of American fleets in the area where they retained great control.

    But so much about Harding's call not for intrigue and guile, as during the negotiations, the United States intercepted communication about treaty strategy from the Japanese, and used this to their advantage in the terms. Outside that guile, the world was eager for a peace agreement and a possible stop to a burgeoning arms race, with public sentiment for the treaties that were agreed to early in 1922, high. The Five Power Treaty was concluded on February 6, 1922.

    An unforseen outcome, however, was an acknowledgment that Japan was now a near equal power in the Pacific Ocean, and with the United States agreement to scrap or agree not to build thirty battleships over the next decade, leading to a diminished fleet when this agreement, and future agreements in 1930, would not halt the desires of Japan to seek preeminance in Pacific Ocean waters. It would not halt their desire for territorial expansion leading into World War II and the eventual attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.


    Text of Five Power Agreement


    LIMITATION OF NAVAL ARMAMENT (FIVE POWER TREATY OR WASHINGTON TREATY)

    Treaty signed at Washington February 6, 1922; proces-verbal of deposit of ratifications signed at Washington August 17, 1923 Senate advice and consent to ratification March 29,1922 Ratified by the President of the United States June 9,1923 Entered into force August 17,1923. Proclaimed by the President of the United States August 21,1923. Terminated December 31, 1936, in accordance with terms of article XXIII.

    43 Stat. 1655; Treaty Series 671

    The United States of America, the British Empire, France, Italy and Japan; Desiring to contribute to the maintenance of the general peace, and to reduce the burdens of competition in armament; Have resolved, with a view to accomplishing these purposes, to conclude a treaty to limit their respective naval armament, and to that end have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:

    The President of the United States of America: Mr. Charles Evans Hughes, Mr. Henry Cabot Lodge, Mr. Oscar W.Underwood, Mr. Elihu Root, citizens of the United States;

    His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India: The Right Honourable Arthu~ James Balfour, O.M., M.P., Lord President of His Privy Council; The Right Honourable Baron Lee of Fareham, G.B.E., K.C.B., First Lord of His Admiralty; The Right Honourable Sir Auckland Campbell Geddes, K.C.B., His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the United States of America; and for the Dominion of Canada: The Right Honourable Sir Robert Laird Borden, G.C.M.G., K.C.; for the Commonwealth of Australia: Senator the Right Honourable George Foster Pearce, Minister for Home and Territories; for the Dominion of New Zealand: The Honourable Sir John William Salmond, K.C., Judge of the Supreme Court of New Zealand; for the Union of South Africa: The Right Honourable Arthur James Balfour, O.M., M.P.; for India: The Right Honourable Valingman Sankaranarayana Srinivasa Sastri, Member of the Indian Council of State;

    The President of the French Republic: Mr. Albert Sarraut, Deputy, Minister of the Colonies; Mr. Jules J. Jusserand, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the United States of America, Grand Cross of the National Order of the Legion of Honour;

    His Majesty the King of Italy: The Honourable Carlo Schanzer, Senator of the Kingdom; The Honourable Vittorio Rolandi Ricci, Senator of the Kingdom, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at Washington; The Honourable Luigi Albertini, Senator of the Kingdom;

    His Majesty the Emperor of Japan: Baron Tomosaburo Kato, Minister for the Navy, Junii, a member of the First Class of the Imperial Order of the Grand Cordon of the Rising Sun with the Paulownia Flower; Baron Kijuro Shidehara, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at Washington, Joshii, a member of the First Class of the Imperial Order of the Rising Sun; Mr. Masanao Hanihara, Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs, Jushii, a member of the Second Class of the Imperial Order of the Rising Sun;

    Who, having communicated to each other their respective full powers, found to be in good and due form, have agreed as follows:

    CHAPTER I - GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO THE LIMITATION OF NAVAL ARMAMENT

    ARTICLE I - The Contracting Powers agree to limit their respective naval armament as provided in the present Treaty.

    ARTICLE II - The Contracting Powers may retain respectively the capital ships which are specified in Chapter II, Part 1. On the coming into force of the present Treaty, but subject to the following provisions of this Article, all other capital ships, built or building, of the United States, the British Empire and Japan shall be disposed of as prescribed in Chapter II, Part 2.

    In addition to the capital ships specified in Chapter II, Part 1, the United States may complete and retain two ships of the West Virginia class now under construction. On the completion of these two ships the North Dakota and Delaware shall be disposed of as prescribed in Chapter II, Part 2.

    The British Empire may, in accordance with the replacement table in Chapter II, Part 3, construct two new capital ships not exceeding 35,000 tons (35,560 metric tons) standard displacement each. On the completion of the said two ships the Thunderer, King George V, Ajax and Centurion shall be disposed of as prescribed in Chapter II, Part 2.

    ARTICLE III - Subject to the provisions of Article II, the Contracting Powers shall abandon their respective capital ship building programs, and no new capital ships shall be constructed or acquired by any of the Contracting Powers except replacement tonnage which may be constructed or acquired as specified in Chapter II, Part 3.

    Ships which are replaced in accordance with Chapter II, Part 3, shall be disposed of as prescribed in Part 2 of that Chapter.

    ARTICLE IV - The total capital ship replacement tonnage of each of the Contracting Powers shall not exceed in standard displacement, for the United States 525,000 tons (533,400 metric tons) ; for the British Empire 525,000 tons (533,400 metric tons); for France 175,000 tons (177,800 metric tons); for Italy 175,000 tons (177,800 metric tons); for Japan 315,000 tons (320,040 metric tons).

    ARTICLE V - No capital ship exceeding 35,000 tons (35,560 metric tons) standard displacement shall be acquired by, or constructed by, for, or within the jurisdiction of, any of the Contracting Powers.

    ARTICLE VI - No capital ship of any of the Contracting Powers shall carry a gun with a calibre in excess of 16 inches (406 millimetres).

    ARTICLE VII - The total tonnage for aircraft carriers of each of the Contracting Powers shall not exceed in standard displacement, for the United States 135,000 tons (137,160 metric tons); for the British Empire 135,000 tons (137,160 metric tons); for France 60,000 tons (60,960 metric tons) ; for Italy 60,000 tons (60,960 metric tons); for Japan 81,000 tons (82,296 metric tons).

    ARTICLE VIII - The replacement of aircraft carriers shall be effected only as prescribed in Chapter II, Part 3, provided, however, that all aircraft carrier tonnage in existence or building on November 12,1921, shall be considered experimental, and may be replaced, within the total tonnage limit prescribed in Article VII, without regard to its age.

    ARTICLE IX - No aircraft carrier exceeding 27,000 tons (27,432 metric tons) standard displacement shall be acquired by, or constructed by, for or within the jurisdiction of, any of the Contracting Powers.

    However, any of the Contracting Powers may, provided that its total tonnage allowance of aircraft carriers is not thereby exceeded, build not more than two aircraft carriers, each of a tonnage of not more than 33,000 tons (33,528 metric tons) standard displacement, and in order to effect economy any of the Contracting Powers may use for this purpose any two of their ships, whether constructed or in course of construction, which would otherwise be scrapped under the provisions of Article II. The armament of any aircraft carriers exceeding 27,000 tons (27,432 metric tons) standard displacement shall be in accordance with the requirements of Article X, except that the total number of guns to be carried in case any of such guns be of a calibre exceeding 6 inches (152 millimetres), except anti-aircraft guns and guns not exceeding 5 inches (127 millimetres), shall not exceed eight.

    ARTICLE X - No aircraft carrier of any of the Contracting Powers shall carry a gun with a calibre in excess of 8 inches (203 millimetres). Without prejudice to the provisions of Article IX, if the armament carried includes guns exceeding 6 inches (152 millimetres) in calibre the total number of guns carried, except anti-aircraft guns and guns not exceeding 5 inches (127 rni1limetres), shall not exceed ten. If alternatively the armament contains no guns exceeding 6 inches (152 millimetres) in calibre, the number of guns is not limited. In either case the number of anti-aircraft guns and of guns not exceeding 5 inches (127 millimetres) is not limited.

    ARTICLE XI - No vessel of war exceeding 10,000 tons (10,160 metric tons) standard displacement, other than a capital ship or aircraft carrier, shall be acquired by, or constructed by, for, or within the jurisdiction of, any of the Contracting Powers. Vessels not specifically built as fighting ships nor taken in time of peace under government control for fighting purposes, which are employed on fleet duties or as troop transports or in some other way for the purpose of assisting in the prosecution of hostilities otherwise than as fighting ships, shall not be within the limitations of this Article.

    ARTICLE XII - No vessel of war of any of the Contracting Powers, hereafter laid down, other than a capital ship, shall carry a gun with a calibre in excess of 8 inches (203 millimetres).

    ARTICLE XIII - Except as provided in Article IX, no ship designated in the present Treaty to be scrapped may be reconverted into a vessel of war.

    ARTICLE XIV - No preparations shall be made in merchant ships in time of peace for the installation of warlike armaments for the purpose of converting such ships into vessels of war, other than the necesSary stiffening of decks for the mounting of guns not exceeding 6 inch (152 millimetres) calibre.

    ARTICLE XV - No vessel of war constructed within the jurisdiction of any of the Contracting Powers for a non-Contracting Power shall exceed the limitations as to displacement and armament prescribed by the present Treaty for vessels of a similar type which may be constructed by or for any of the Contracting Powers; provided, however, that the displacement for aircraft carriers constructed for a non-Contracting Power shall in no case exceed 27,000 tons (27,432 metric tons) standard displacement.

    ARTICLE XVI - If the construction of any vessel of war for a non-Contracting Power is undertaken within the jurisdiction of any of the Contracting Powers, such Power shall promptly inform the other Contracting Powers of the date of the signing of the contract and the date on which the keel of the ship is laid; and shall also communicate to them the particulars relating to the ship prescribed in Chapter II, Part 3, Section I (b), (4) and (5).

    ARTICLE XVII - In the event of a Contracting Power being engaged in war, such Power shall not use as a vessel of war any vessel of war which may be under construction within its jurisdiction for any other Power, or which may have been constructed within its jurisdiction for another Power and not delivered.

    ARTICLE XVIII Each of the Contracting Powers undertakes not to dispose by gift, sale or any mode of transfer of any vessel of war in such a manner that such vessel may become a vessel of war in the Navy of any foreign Power.

    ARTICLE XIX - The United States, the British Empire and Japan agree that the status quo at the time of the signing of the present Treaty, with regard to fortifications and naval bases, shall be maintained in their respective territories and possessions specified hereunder:

    (1) The insular possessions which the United States now holds or may hereafter acquire in the Pacific Ocean, except (a) those adjacent to the coast of the United States, Alaska and the Panama Canal Zone, not including the Aleutian Islands, and (b) the Hawaiian Islands;

    (2) Hongkong and the insular possessions which the British Empire now holds or may hereafter acquire in the Pacific Ocean, east of the meridian of 1100 east longitude, except (a) those adjacent to the coast of Canada, (b) the Commonwealth of Australia and its Territories, and (c) New Zealand;

    (3) The following insular territories and possessions of Japan in the Pacific Ocean, to wit: the Kurile Islands, the Bonin Islands, Amami-Oshima, the Loochoo Islands, Formosa and the Pescadores, and any insular territories or possessions in the Pacific Ocean which Japan may hereafter acquire.

    The maintenance of the status quo under the foregoing provisions implies that no new fortifications or naval bases shall be established in the territories and possessions specified; that no measures shall be taken to increase the existing naval facilities for the repair and maintenance of naval forces, and that no increase shall be made in the coast defences of the territories and possessions above specified. This restriction, however, does not preclude such repair and replacement of worn-out weapons and equipment as is customary in naval and military establishments in time of peace.

    ARTICLE XX - The rules for detennining tonnage displacement prescribed in Chapter II, Part 4, shall apply to the ships of each of the Contracting Powers.

    CHAPTER II

    RULES RELATING TO THE EXECUTION OF THE TREATY-DEFINITION OF TERMS

    PART 1 - Capital Ships Which May Be Retained by the Contracting Powers

    In accordance with Article II ships may be retained by each of the Contracting Powers as specified in this Part.

    SHIPS WHICH MAY BE RETAINED BY THE UNITED STATES

    Name: Maryland ... 32,600 tonnage.
    California ... 32,300 tonnage.
    Tennessee ... 32,300 tonnage.
    Idaho ... 32,000 tonnage.
    New Mexico ... 32,000 tonnage.
    Mississippi ... 32,000 tonnage.
    Arizona. ... 31,400 tonnage.
    Pennsylvania ... 31,400 tonnage.
    Oklahoma ... 27,500 tonnage.
    Nevada ... 27,500 tonnage.
    New York... 27,000 tonnage.
    Texas ... 27,000 tonnage.
    Arkansas ... 26,000 tonnage.
    Wyoming ... 26,000 tonnage.
    Florida ... 21,825 tonnage.
    Utah ... 21,825 tonnage.
    North Dakota ... 20,000 tonnage.
    Delaware . ... 20,000 tonnage.

    Total tonnage 500,650.

    On the completion of the two ships of the West Virginia class and the scrapping of the North Dakota and Delaware, as provided in Article II, the total tonnage to be retained by the United States will be 525,850 tons.

    SHIPS WHICH MAY BE RETAINED BY THE BRITISH EMPIRE

    Name: Royal Sovereign ... 25,750 tonnage.
    Royal Oak ... 25,750 tonnage.
    Revenge ... 25,750 tonnage.
    Resolution ... 25,750 tonnage.
    Ramillies ... 25,750 tonnage.
    Malaya ... 27,500 tonnage.
    Valiant ... 27,500 tonnage.
    Barham ... 27,500 tonnage.
    Queen Elizabeth ... 27,500 tonnage.
    Warspite ... 27,500 tonnage.
    Benbow ... 25,000 tonnage.
    Emperor of India ... 25,000 tonnage.
    Iron Duke ... 25,000 tonnage.
    Marlborough ... 25,000 tonnage.
    Hood ... 41,200 tonnage.
    Renown ... 26,500 tonnage.
    Repulse ... 26,500 tonnage.
    Tiger ... 28,500 tonnage.
    Thunderer ... 22,500 tonnage.
    King George V ... 23,000 tonnage.
    Ajax ... 23,000 tonnage.
    Centurion ... 23,000 tonnage.

    Total Tonnage 580,450.

    On the completion of the two new ships to be constructed and the scrapping of the Thunderer, King George V, Ajax and Centurion, as provided in Article II, the total tonnage to be retained by the British Empire will be 558,950 tons.

    SHIPS WHICH MAY BE RETAINED BY FRANCE

    Name: Bretagne ... 23,500 tonnage.
    Lorraine ... 23,500 tonnage.
    Provence ... 23,500 tonnage.
    Paris ... 23,500 tonnage.
    France ... 23,500 tonnage.
    Jean Bart ... 23,500 tonnage.
    Courbet ... 23,500 tonnage.
    Condorcet ... 18,890 tonnage.
    Diderot ... 18,890 tonnage.
    Voltaire ... 18,890 tonnage.

    Total tonnage 221,170.

    France may lay down new tonnage in the years 1927, 1929, and 1931, as provided in Part 3, Section II.

    SHIPS WHICH MAY BE RETAINED BY ITALY

    Name: Andrea Doria ... 22,700 tonnage.
    Caio Duilio ... 22,700 tonnage.
    Conte Di Cavour ... 22,500 tonnage.
    Giulio Cesare ... 22,500 tonnage.
    Leonardo Da Vinci ... 22,500 tonnage.
    Dante Alighieri ... 19,500 tonnage.
    Roma ... 12,600 tonnage.
    Napoli ... 12,600 tonnage.
    Vittorio Emanuele ... 12,600 tonnage.
    Regina Elena ... 12,600 tonnage.

    Total tonnage 182,800.

    Italy may lay down new tonnage in the years 1927, 1929, and 1931, as provided in Part 3, Section II.

    SHIPS WHICH MAY BE RETAINED By JAPAN

    Name: Mutsu ... 33,800 tonnage.
    Nagato ... 33,800 tonnage.
    Hiuga ... 31,260 tonnage.
    Ise ... 31,260 tonnage.
    Yamashiro ... 30,600 tonnage.
    Fu-So ... 30,600 tonnage.
    Kirishima ... 27,500 tonnage.
    Haruna ... 27,500 tonnage.
    Hiyei ... 27,500 tonnage.
    Kongo ... 27,500 tonnage.

    Total tonnage 301,320.

    PART 2

    Rules tor Scrapping Vessels of War

    The following rules shall be observed for the scrapping of vessels of war which are to be disposed of in accordance with Articles II and III.

    I. A vessel to be scrapped must be placed in such condition that it cannot be put to combatant use.

    II. This result must be finally effected in anyone of the following ways:

    (a) Permanent sinking of the vessel; (b) Breaking the vessel up. This shall always involve the destruction or removal of all machinery, boilers and armour, and all deck, side and bottom plating; (c) Converting the vessel to target use exclusively. In such case all the provisions of paragraph III of this Part, except subparagraph (6), in so far as may be necessary to enable the ship to be used as a mobile target, and except sub-paragraph (7), must be previously complied with. Not more than one capital ship may be retained for this purpose at one time by any of the Contracting Powers. (d) Of the capital ships which would otherwise be scrapped under the present Treaty in or after the year 1931, France and Italy may each retain two sea-going vessels for training purposes exclusively, that is, as gunnery or torpedo schools. The two vessels retained by France shall be of the Jean Bart class, and of those retained by Italy one shall be the Dante Alighieri, the other of the Giulio Cesare class. On retaining these ships for the purpose above stated, France and Italy respectively undertake to remove and destroy their conning-towers, and not to use the said ships as vessels of war.

    III. (a) Subject to the special exceptions contained in Article IX, when a vessel is due for scrapping, the first stage of scrapping, which consists in rendering a ship incapable of further warlike service, shall be immediately undertaken. (b) A vessel shall be considered incapable of further warlike service when there shall have been removed and landed, or else destroyed in the ship: (1) All guns and essential portions of guns, fire-control tops and revolving parts of all barbettes and turrets; (2) All machinery for working hydraulic or electric mountings; (3) All fire-control instruments and range-finders; (4) All ammunition, explosives and mines; (5) All torpedoes, war-heads and torpedo tubes; (6) All wirele~s telegraphy installations; (7) The conning tower and all side armour, or alternatively all main propelling machinery; and (8) All landing and flying-off platforms and all other aviation accessories.

    IV. The periods in which scrapping of vessels is to be effected are as follows:

    (a) In the case of vessels to be scrapped under the first paragraph of Article II, the work of rendering the vessels incapable of further warlike service, in accordance with paragraph III of this Part, shall be completed within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, and the scrapping shall be finally effected within eighteen months from such coming into force.

    (b) In the case of vessels to be scrapped under the second and third paragraphs of Article II, or under Article III, the work of rendering the vessel incapable of further warlike service in accordance with paragraph III of this Part shall be commenced not later than the date of completion of its successor, and shall be finished within six months from the date of such completion. The vessel shall be finally scrapped, in accordance with paragraph II of this Part, within eighteen months from the date of completion of its successor. If, however, the completion of the new vessel be delayed, then the work of rendering the old vessel incapable of further warlike service in accordance with paragraph III of this Part shall be commenced within four years from the laying of the keel of the new vessel, and shall be finished within six months from the date on which such work was commenced, and the old vessel shall be finally scrapped in accordance with paragraph II of this Part within eighteen months from the date when the work of rendering it incapable of further warlike service was commenced.


    Teepossible.com T-Shirts and Gifts

    PART 3 - Replacement

    The replacement of capital ships and aircraft carriers shall take place according to the rules in Section I and the tables in Section II of this Part.

    SECTION I - RULES FOR REPLACEMENT

    (a) Capital ships and aircraft carriers twenty years after the date of their completion may, except as otherwise provided in Article VIII and in the tables in Section II of this Part, be replaced by new construction, but within the limits prescribed in Article IV and Article VII. The keels of such new construction may, except as otherwise provided in Article VIII and in the tables in Section II of this Part, be laid down not earlier than seventeen years from the date of completion of the tonnage to be replaced, provided, however, that no capital ship tonnage, with the exception of the ships referred to in the third paragraph of Article II, and the replacement tonnage specifically mentioned in Section II of this Part, shall be laid down until ten years from November 12,1921.

    (b) Each of the Contracting Powers shall communicate promptly to each of the other Contracting Powers the following information:

    (1) :The names of the capital ships and aircraft carriers to be replaced by new construction; (2) The date of governmental authorization of replacement tonnage; (3) The date of laying the keels of replacement tonnage; (4) The standard displacement in tons and metric tons of each new ship to be laid down, and the principal dimensions, namely, length at waterline, extreme beam at or below waterline, mean draft at standard displacement; (5) The date of completionof each new ship and its standard displacement in tons and metric tons, and the principal dimensions, namely, length at waterline, extreme beam at or below waterline, mean draft at standard displacement, at time of completion. (c) In case of loss or accidental destruction of capital ships or aircraft carriers, they may immediately be replaced by new construction subject to the tonnage limits prescribed in Articles IV and VII and in conformity with the other provisions of the present Treaty, the regular replacement program being deemed to be advanced to that extent. (d) No retained capital ships or aircraft carriers shall be reconstructed except for the purpose of providing means of defense against air and submarine attack, and subject to the following rules: The Contracting Powers may, for that purpose, equip existing tonnage with bulge or blister or antiair attack deck protection, providing the increase of displacement thus effected does not exceed 3,000 tons (3,048 metric tons) displacement for each ship. No alterations in side armor, in calibre, number or general type of mounting of main armament shall be permitted except:

    (1) in the case of France and Italy, which countries within the limits allowed for bulge may increase their armor protection and the calibre of the guns now carried on their existing capital ships so as not to exceed 16 inches (406 millimeters) and . (2) the British Empire shall be permited to complete, in the case of the Renown) the alterations to armor that have already been commenced but temporarily suspended.

    SECTION II - REPLACEMENT AND SCRAPPING OF CAPITAL SHIPS - United States

    Ships laid down - 1931, C,D; 1932, E.F; 1933, G; 1934, H,I; 1935, J; 1936, K,L; 1937, M; 1938, N,O; 1939, P,Q.

    Ships completed - 1922, A,B, #; 1934 C.D; 1935, E.F; 1936, G; 1937, H.I; 1938 J; 1939 K,L; 1940, M; 1941, N,O; 1942, P,Q.

    Ships scrapped (age in parentheses) - 1922 - Maine (20), Missouri (20), Virginia (17), Nebraska (17), Georgia (17), New Jersey (17), Rhode Island (17), Connecticut (17), Louisiana (17), Vermont (16), Kansas (16), Minnesota (16), New Hampshire (IS), South Carolina (13), Michigan (13), Washington (0), South Dakota (0), Indiana (0), Montana (0), North Carolina (0), Iowa '(0), Massachusetts (0), Lexington (0), Constitution (0), Constellation (0), Saratoga (0), Ranger (0), United States (0).* Delaware (12), North Dakota (12).

    1934 - Florida (23), Utah (23), Wyoming (22).

    1935 - Arkansas (23), Texas (21), New York (21).

    1936 - Nevada (20), Oklahoma (20).

    1937 - Arizona (21), Pennsylvania (21).

    1938 - Mississippi (21).

    1939 - New Mexico (21), Idaho (20).

    1940 - Tennessee (20).

    1941 - California (20), Maryland (20).

    1942 - 2 ships West Virginia class.

    Ships Retained Summary, Pre,Post Jutland

    1922 - 17, 1
    1922 to 1933 - 15, 3
    1934 - 12, 5
    1935 - 9, 7
    1936 - 7, 8
    1937 - 5, 10
    1938 - 4, 11
    1939 - 2, 13
    1940 - 1, 14
    1941 - 0, 15
    1942 - 0, 15

    *The United States may retain the Oregon and Illinois, for noncombatant purposes, after complying with the provisions of Part 2, III, (b). # Two West Virginia class.

    NOTE.-A, B, C, D, etc., represent individual capital ships of 35,000 tons standard displacement, laid down and completed in the years specified.

    REPLACEMENT AND SCRAPPING OF CAPITAL SHIPS - British Empire

    Ships laid down - 1922, A,B#; 1931, C.D; 1932, E,F; 1933, G; 1934, H,I; 1935, J; 1936, K,L; 1937, M; 1938, N,O; 1939, P,Q.

    Ships completed - 1925, A,B; 1934 C.D; 1935, E.F; 1936, G; 1937, H.I; 1938 J; 1939 K,L; 1940, M; 1941, N,O; 1942, P,Q.

    Ships scrapped (age in parentheses) - 1922 - Commonwealth (16), Agamemnon (13), Dreadnought (15), Bellerophon (12), St. Vincent (II), Inflexible (13), Superb (12), Neptune (10), Hercules (10), Indomitable (13), Temeraire (12), New Zealand (9), Lion (9), Princess Royal (9), Conqueror (9), Monarch (9), Orion (9), Australia (8), Agincourt (7), Erin (7),4 building or projected.*

    1925 - King George V (13), Ajax (12), Centurion (12), Thunderer (13).

    1934 - Iron Duke (20), Marlborough (20), Emperor of India (20), Benbow (20).

    1935 - Tiger (21), Queen Elizabeth (20), Warspite (20), Barham (20).

    1936 - Malaya (20), Royal Sovereign (20).

    1937 - Revenge (21), Resolution (21).

    1938 - Royal Oak (22).

    1939 - Valiant (23), Repulse (23).

    1940 - Renown (24).

    1941 - Ramillies (24), Hood (21).

    1942 - A (17), B (17).

    Ships Retained Summary, Pre,Post Jutland

    1922 - 21, 1
    1922 to 1924 - 21, 1
    1925 to 1933 - 17, 3
    1934 - 13, 5
    1935 - 9, 7
    1936 - 7, 8
    1937 - 5, 10
    1938 - 4, 11
    1939 - 2, 13
    1940 - 1, 14
    1941 - 0, 15
    1942 - 0, 15

    *The British Empire may retain the Colossus and Collingwood for noncombatant purposes, after complying with the provisions of Part 2, III, (b). #Two 35,000-ton ships, standard displacement.

    NOTE.-A, B, C, D, etc., represent individual capital ships of 35,000 tons standard displacement laid down and completed in the years specified.

    REPLACEMENT AND SCRAPPING OF CAPITAL SHIPS - France

    Ships laid down - 1927, 35,000 tons; 1929, 35,000 tons; 1931, 35,000 tons; 1932, 35,000 tons; 1933, 35,000 tons.

    Ships completed - 1930, 35,000 tons; 1932 35,000 tons; 1934, 35,000 tons; 1935, 35,000 tons; 1936, 35,000 tons.

    Ships scrapped (age in parentheses) - 1930 - Jean Bart (17), Courbet (17).

    1932 - France (18).

    1934 - Paris (20), Bretagne (20).

    1935 - Provence (20).

    1936 - Lorraine (20).

    Ships Retained Summary, Pre,Post Jutland

    1922 to 1929 - 7, 0
    1930 to 1931 - 5*
    1932 to 1933 - 4*
    1934 - 2*
    1935 - 1*
    1936-1942 - 0*

    * Within tonnage limitations; number not fixed.

    NOTE.-France expressly reserves the right of employing the capital ship tonnage allotment as she may consider advisable, subject solely to the limitations that the displacement of individual ships should not surpass 35,000 tons, and that the total capital ship tonnage should keep within the limits imposed by the present Treaty.

    REPLACEMENT AND SCRAPPING OF CAPITAL SHIPS - Italy

    Ships laid down - 1927, 35,000 tons; 1929, 35,000 tons; 1931, 35,000 tons; 1932, 35,000 tons; 1933, 35,000 tons.

    Ships completed - 1931, 35,000 tons; 1933 35,000 tons; 1935, 35,000 tons; 1936, 35,000 tons; 1937, 35,000 tons.

    Ships scrapped (age in parentheses) - 1931 - Dante Alighieri (19).

    1933 - Leonardo da Vinci (19).

    1935 - Giulio Cesare (21).

    1936 - Conte di Cavour (21), Duilio (21).

    1937 - Andrea Doria (21).

    Ships Retained Summary, Pre,Post Jutland

    1922 to 1930 - 6, 0
    1931 to 1932 - 5*
    1933 to 1934 - 4*
    1935 - 3*
    1936 - 1*
    1937 - 0*

    *Within tonnage limitations; number not fixed.

    NOTE.-Italy expressly reserves the right of employing the capital ship tonnage allotment as she may consider advisable, subject solely to the limitations that the displacement of individual ships should not surpass 35,000 tons, and the total capital ship tonnage should keep within the limits imposed by the present Treaty.

    REPLACEMENT AND SCRAPPING OF CAPITAL SHIPS - Japan

    Ships laid down - 1931, A; 1932, B; 1933, C; 1934, D; 1935, E; 1936, F; 1937, G; 1938, H; 1939, I.

    Ships completed - 1934, A; 1935, B; 1936, C; 1937, D; 1938, E; 1939, F; 1940, G; 1941, H; 1942, I.

    Ships scrapped (age in parentheses) - 1922 Hizen (20), Mikasa (20),Kashima (16), Katori (16), Satsuma (12), Aki (II), Settsu (10), Ikoma (14), Ibuki (12), Kurama (II), Amagi (0), Akagi (0), Kaga (0), Tosa (0), Takao (0), Atago (0). Projected program 8 ships not laid down.*

    1934 - Kongo (21).

    1935 - Hiyei (21), Haruna (20).

    1936 - Kirishima (21).

    1937 - Fuso (22).
    1938 - Yamashiro (21)
    1939 - Ise (22)
    1940 - Hiuga (22)
    1941 - Nagato (21)
    1942 - Matsu (21)

    Ships Retained Summary, Pre,Post Jutland

    1922 to 1933 - 8, 2
    1934 - 7, 3
    1935 - 5, 4
    1936 - 4, 5
    1937 - 3, 6
    1938 - 2, 7
    1939 - 1, 8
    1940 to 1942 - 0, 9

    *Japan may retain the Shikishima and Asahi for noncombatant purposes, after complying with the provisions of Part 2, III, (b).

    NOTE.-A, B, C, D, etc., represent individual capital ships of 35,000 tons standard displacement, laid down and completed in the years specified.

    NOTE APPLICABLE TO ALL THE TABLES IN. SECTION II

    The order above prescribed in which ships are to be scrapped is in accordance with their age. It is understood that when replacement begins according to the above tables the order: of scrapping in the case of the ships of each of the Contracting Powers may be varied at its option; provided, however, that such Power shall scrap in each year the number of ships above stated.

    PART 4 - Definitions

    For the purposes of the present Treaty, the following expressions are to be understood in the sense defined in this Part.

    CAPITAL SHIP - A capital ship, in the case of ships hereafter built, is defined as a vessel of war, not an aircraft carrier, whose displacement exceeds 10,000 tons (10,160 metric tons) standard displacement, or which carries a gun with a calibre exceeding 8 inches (203 millimetres).

    AIRCRAFT CARRIER - An aircraft carrier is defined as a vessel of war with a displacement in excess of 10,000 tons (10,160 metric tons) standard displacement designed for the specific and exclusive purpose of carrying aircraft. It must be so constructed that aircraft can be launched therefrom and landed thereon, and not designed and constructed for carrying a more powerful armament than that allowed to it under Article IX or Article X as the case may be.

    STANDARD DISPLACEMENT - The standard displacement of a ship is the displacement of the ship complete, fully manned, engined, and equipped ready for sea, including all armament and ammunition, equipment, outfit, provisions and fresh water for crew, miscellaneous stores and implements of every description that are intended to be carried in war, but without fuel or reserve feed water on board. The word "ton" in the present Treaty, except in the expression "metric tons", shall be understood to mean the ton of 2240 pounds (1016 kilos). Vessels now completed shall retain their present ratings of displacement tonnage in accordance with their national system of measurement. However, a Power expressing displacement in metric tons shall be considered for the application of the present Treaty as owning only the equivalent displacement in tons of 2240 pounds. A vessel completed hereafter shall be rated at its displacement tonnage when in the standard condition defined herein.

    CHAPTER III - MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

    ARTICLE XXI

    If during the term of the present Treaty the requirements of the national security of any Contracting Power in respect of naval defence are, in the opinion of that Power, materially affected by any change of circumstances, the Contracting Powers will, at the request of such Power, meet in conference with a view to the reconsideration of the provisions of the Treaty and its amendment by mutual agreement.

    In view of possible technical and scientific developments, the United States, after consultation with the other Contracting Powers, shall arrange for a conference of all the Contracting Powers which shall convene as soon as possible after the expiration of eight years from the coming into force of the present Treaty to consider what changes, if any, in the Treaty may be necessary to meet such developments.

    ARTICLE XXII - Whenever any Contracting Power shall become engaged in a war which in its opinion affects the naval defence of its national security, such Power may after notice to the other Contracting Powers suspend for the period of hostilities its obligations under the present Treaty other than those under Articles XIII and XVII, provided that such Power shall notify the other Contracting Powers that the emergency is of such a character as to require such suspension. The remaining Contracting Powers shall in such case consult together with a view to agreement as to what temporary modifications if any should be made in the Treaty as between themselves. Should such consultation not produce agreement, duly made in accordance with the constitutional methods of the respective Powers, anyone of said Contracting Powers may, by giving notice to the other Contracting Powers, suspend for the period of hostilities its obligations under the present Treaty, other than those under Articles XIII and XVII.

    On the cessation of hostilities the Contracting Powers will meet in conference to consider what modifications, if any, should be made in the provisions of the present Treaty.

    ARTICLE XXIII

    The present Treaty shall remain in force until December 31st, 1936, and in case none of the Contracting Powers shall have given notice two years before that date of its intention to terminate the Treaty, it shall continue in force until the expiration of two years from the date on which notice of termination shall be given by one of the Contracting Powers, whereupon the Treaty shall terminate as regards all the Contracting Powers. Such notice shall be communicated in writing to the Government of the United States, which shall immediately transmit a certified copy of the notification to the other Powers and inform them of the date on which it was received. The notice shall be deemed to have been given and shall take effect on that date. In the event of notice of termination being given by the Government of the United States, such notice shall be given to the diplomatic representatives at Washington of the other Contracting Powers, arid the notice shall be deemed to have been given and shall take effect on the date of the communication made to the said diplomatic representatives.

    Within one year of the date on which a notice of termination by any Power has taken effect, all the Contracting Powers shall meet in conference.

    ARTICLE XXIV

    The present Treaty shall be ratified by the Contracting Powers in accordance with their respective constitutional methods and shall take effect on the date of the deposit of all the ratifications, which shall take place at Washington as soon as possible. The Government of the United States will transmit to the other Contracting Powers a certified copy of the proces-verbal of the deposit of ratifications.

    The present Treaty, of which the French and English texts are both authentic, shall remain deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States, and duly certified copies thereof shall be transmitted by that Government to the other Contracting Powers.

    In faith whereof the above-named Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty.

    Done at the City of Washington the sixth day of February, One Thousand Nine Hundred and Twenty-Two.

    The details in the above treaty are mind-numbing, and included in this article as much for context as the words. Not only were these words to be proven moot when signatories to the agreement breached its terms, but also as a point of understanding how much work and effort it takes to come up with something that might, in the end, despite all good intentions, turn up to be incorrect.

    Photo above: The Conference on the Limitations of Armaments, 1921/1922, Harris and Ewing. Courtesy Library of Congress. Below: Stereoview of the Disarmament Conference in session in Memorial Continental Hall, Daughters of the American Revolution, Washington, D.C., 1921, Keystone View Company. Courtesy Library of Congress. Info source: Library of Congress Statutes at Large; millercenter.org; Department of State; Wikipedia Commons.

    Washington Armaments Conference






    History Photo Bomb