History Timeline 1930's

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U.S. Timeline - The 1930s

The Great Depression



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  • Timeline

  • 1930 - Detail

    April 22, 1930 - The London Naval Reduction Treaty is signed into law by the United States, Great Britain, Italy, France, and Japan, to take effect on January 1, 1931. It would expire on December 31, 1936.

    U.S. Delegates, London Naval Reduction Treaty

    The London Naval Conference began on January 21, 1930 in the House of Lords with King George opening. The delegates of the five powers were there to discuss further naval disarmament after the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, its extension, and the possibility of banning all submarines. And while it's a bit of a misnomer to state that it was law by April 22, 1930, it was a post conference agreement to reductions seen necessary after World War I to halt the arms race of those submarines (not banned) and other naval vessels, signed by the parties. The documents would take most of the rest of the year to ratify. In the United States, President Herbert Hoover, buoyed by a public that did not want to spend money on an arms race, urged its passage.

    "The economic burdens and the diversion of taxes from welfare purposes which would be imposed upon ourselves and other nations by failure of this treaty are worth consideration. Under its provisions the replacement of battleships required under the Washington arms treaty of 1921 is postponed for six years. The costs of replacing and maintaining the three scrapped battleships is saved. Likewise we make economies in construction and operation by the reduction in our submarine and destroyer fleets to 52,700 and 150,000 tons respectively. What the possible saving over an otherwise inevitable era of competitive building would be no one can estimate. ....."

    "This treaty does mark an important step in disarmament and in world peace. It is important for many reasons that it should be dealt with at once. The subject has been under discussion since the Geneva conference three years ago. The lines of this treaty have been known and under discussion since last summer. The actual document has been before the American people and before the Senate for nearly three months. It has been favorably reported by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Every solitary fact which affects judgment upon the treaty is known, and the document itself comprises the sole obligation of the United States. If we fail now, the world will be again plunged backward from its progress toward peace." - Herbert Hoover, July 7, 1930.

    On October 27, 1930, those ratifications were exchanged and the treaty went into de facto effect. Some sources state full effect began on January 1 of the next year. The League of Nations registered the Treaty on February 1, 1931.

    However, the dates within that time frame seem a moot point past both the intent (good) and the impact (not as good). Missing from the treaty was the nation of Germany or knowledge whether all parties would adhere to its terms or last until its expiration.


    Intent versus Reality


    It had been a well meaning effort to extend the previous treaty established after World War I, the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, to address naval build-up. That treaty had been signed by the United States, Great Britain, France, Japan, and Italy, but not Germany as well. Germany had been limited in its naval development by the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I and the five powers considered that treaty still valid in regard to limiting Germany's navy. Germany had scuttled most of its navy from its World War I size on June 21, 1919 while being interned in Scotland. At the Geneva Naval Conference of 1927, a naval reduction treaty past the Washington Treaty was discussed, but tensions between Great Britain and the United States prevented a full treaty until 1930.

    Perhaps more of a problem, however, than Germany's naval buildup during the years of the two London Naval Reduction Treaties was Japan and Italy's renunciation in the mid-1930's. On December 29, 1934, Japan officially gave notice that it intended to terminate the treaty. When negotiations began for the Second Naval Reduction Treaty of 1936, Japan withdrew from the conference on January 15, with Italy, under sanctions by the League of Nations due to its invasion of Ethiopia, also refusing to sign the second treaty, leaving its signatories down to the United States, Great Britain, and France. At this point, the signs pointing toward World War II should have been crystal clear, however, it was not until 1939 that Germany, with its invasion of Poland and allies Japan and Italy in the Axis showed that the good intent of the two London Naval Treaties did not match the Reality of what the world had in store. And while some historians still credit the three reduction treaties important to keep the world at peace between the end of World War I and beginning of World War II, that is certainly up for debate in the hindsight that history allows.


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    Full Text, London Naval Reduction Treaty 1930


    LIMITATION AND REDUCTION OF NAVAL ARMAMENT (LONDON NAVAL TREATY)

    The President of the United States of America, the President of the French Republic, His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, His Majesty the King of Italy, and His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, Desiring to prevent the dangers and reduce the burdens inherent in competitive armaments, and Desiring to carry forward the work begun by the Washington Naval Conference and to facilitate the progressive realization of general limitation and reduction of armaments, Have resolved to conclude a Treaty for the limitation and reduction of naval armament, and have accordingly appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:

    The President of the United States of America: Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of State; Charles G. Dawes, Ambassador to the Court of St. James; Charles Francis Adams, Secretary of the Navy; Joseph T. Robinson, Senatorfrom the State of Arkansas; David A. Reed, Senator from the State of Pennsylvania;

    Hugh Gibson, Ambassador to Belgium; Dwight W. Morrow, Ambassador to Mexico; The President of the French Republic: Mr. Andre Tardieu, Deputy, President of the Council of Ministers, Minister of the Interior; Mr. Aristide Briand, Deputy, Minister for Foreign Affairs; Mr. Jacques-Louis Dumesnil, Deputy, Minister of Marine; Mr. Franc;ois Pietri, Deputy, Minister of the Colonies; Mr. Aime-Joseph de Fleuriau, Ambassador of the French Republic at the Court of St. James; His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India: For Great Britain and Northern Ireland and all parts of the British Empire which are not separate Members of the League of Nations: The Right Honourable James Ramsay MacDonald, M.P., First Lord of His Treasury and Prime Minister; The Right Honourable Arthur Henderson, M.P., His Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; The Right Honourable Albert Victor Alexander, M.P., First Lord of His Admiralty; The Right Honourable William Wedgwood Benn, D.S.a., D.F.C., M.P., His Principal Secretary of State for India; For the Dominion of Canada: Colonel The Honourable James Layton Ralston, C.M.G., D.S.a., K.C., a Member of His Privy Council for Canada, His Minister for National Defence; The Honourable Philippe Roy, a Member of His Privy Council for Canada, His Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in France for the Dominion of Canada; For the Commonwealth of Australia: The Honourable James Edward Fenton, His Minister for Trade and Customs; For the Dominion of New Zealand: Thomas Mason Wilford, Esquire, K.C., High Commissioner for the Dominion of New Zealand in London;

    For the Union of South Africa: Charles Theodore te Water, Esquire, High Commissioner for the Union of South Africa in London; For the Irish Free State: Timothy Aloysius Smiddy, Esquire, High Commissioner for the Irish Free State in London; For India: Sir Atul Chandra Chatterjee, K.C.I.E., High Commissioner for India in London; His Majesty the King of Italy: The Honourable Dino Grandi, Deputy, His Minister Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; Admiral of Division The Honourable Giuseppe Sirianni, Senator of the Kingdom, His Minister Secretary of State for Marine; Mr. Antonio Chiaramonte-Bordonaro, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at the Court of St. James; Admiral The Honourable Baron Afredo Acton, Senator of the Kingdom; His Majesty the Emperor of Japan: Mr. Reijiro Wakatsuki, Member of the House of Peers; Admiral Takeshi Takarabe, Minister for the Navy; Mr. Tsuneo Matsudaira, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at the Court of St. James; Mr. Matsuzo Nagai, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to His Majesty the King of the Belgians; Who, having communicated to one another their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed as follows:

    PART I - ARTICLE 1 - The High Contracting Parties agree not to exercise their rights to lay down the keels of capital ship replacement tonnage during the years 1931-1936 inclusive as provided in Chapter II, Part 3 of the Treaty for the Limitation of Naval Armament signed between them at Washington on the 6th February, 1922,3 and referred to in the present Treaty as the Washington Treaty.

    This provision is without prejudice to the disposition relating to the replacement of ships accidentally lost or destroyed contained in Chapter II, Part 3, Section I, paragraph (c) of the said Treaty.

    France and Italy may, however, build the replacement tonnage which they were entitled to lay down in 1927 and 1929 in accordance with the provisions of the said Treaty.

    ARTICLE 2 - 1. The United States, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Japan shall dispose of the following capital ships as provided in this Article:

    United States: "Florida". "Utah". "Arkansas" or "Wyoming".

    United Kingdom: "Benbow". "Iron Duke". "Marlborough". "Emperor of India". "Tiger".

    Japan: "Hiyei".

    (a) Subject to the provisions of sub-paragraph (b), the above ships, unless converted to target use exclusively in accordance with Chapter II, Part 2, paragraph II (c) of the Washington Treaty, shall be scrapped in the followingmanner: One of the ships to be scrapped by the United States, and two of those to be scrapped by the United Kingdom shall be rendered unfit for warlike service, in accordance with Chapter II, Part 2, paragraph III (b) of the Washington Treaty, within twelve months from the coming into force of the present Treaty. These ships shall be finally scrapped, in accordance with paragraph II (a) or (b) of the said Part 2, within twenty-four months from the said coming into force. In the case of the second of the ships to be scrapped by the United States, and of the third and fourth of the ships to be scrapped by the United Kingdom, the said periods shall be eighteen and thirty months respectively from the coming into force of the present Treaty.

    (b) Of the ships to be disposed of under this Article, the following may be retained for training purposes: by the United States: "Arkansas" or "Wyoming". by the United Kingdom: "Iron Duke". by Japan: "Hiyei". These ships shall be reduced to the condition prescribed in Section V of Annex II to Part II of the present Treaty. The work of reducing these vessels to the required condition shall begin, in the case of the United States and the United Kingdom, within twelve months, and in the case of Japan within eighteen months from the coming into force of the present Treaty; the work shall be completed within six months of the expiration of the above-mentioned periods.

    Any of these ships which are not retained for training purposes shall be rendered unfit for warlike service within eighteen months, and finally scrapped within thirty months, of the coming into force of the present Treaty.

    2. Subject to any disposal of capital ships which might be necessitated, in accordance with the Washington Treaty, by the building by France or Italy of the replacement tonnage referred to in Article 1 of the present Treaty, all existing capital ships mentioned in Chapter II, Part 3, Section II of the Washington Treaty and not designated above to be disposed of may be retained during the term of the present Treaty.

    3. The right of replacement is not lost by delay in laying down replacement tonnage, and the old vessel may be retained until replaced even though due for scrapping under Chapter II, Part 3, Section II, of the Washington Treaty.

    ARTICLE 3 - 1. For the purposes of the Washington Treaty, the definition of an aircraft carrier given in Chapter II, Part 4 of the said Treaty is hereby replaced by the following definition: The expression "aircraft carrier" includes any surface vessel of war, whatever its displacement, designed for the specific and exclusive purpose of carrying aircraft and so constructed that aircraft can be launched therefrom and landed thereon.

    2. The fitting of a landing-on or flying-off platform or deck on a capital ship, cruiser or destroyer, provided such vessel was not designed or adapted exclusively as an aircraft carrier, shall not cause any vessel so fitted to be charged against or classified in the category of aircraft carriers.

    3. No capital ship in existence on the 1st April, 1930, shall be fitted with a landing-on platform or deck.

    ARTICLE 4 - 1. No aircraft carrier of 10,000 tons (10,160 metric tons) or less standard displacement mounting a gun above 6.1-inch (155 mm.) calibre shall be acquired by or constructed by or for any of the High Contracting Parties.

    2. As from the coIning into force of the present Treaty in respect of all the High Contracting Parties, no aircraft carrier of 10,000 tons (10,160 metric tons) or less standard displacement mounting a gun above 6.1-inch (155 mm.) calibre shall be constructed within the jurisdiction of any of the High Contracting Parties.

    ARTICLE 5 - An aircraft carrier must not be designed and constructed for carrying a more powerful armament than that authorised by Article IX or Article X 1060 MULTILATERAL AGREEMENTS 1918-1930 of the Washington Treaty, or by Article 4 of the present Treaty, as the case may be. Wherever in the said Articles IX and X the calibre of 6 inches (152 mm.) is mentioned, the calibre of 6.1 inches (155 rom.) is substituted therefor.

    PART II - ARTICLE 6

    1. The rules for determining standard displacement prescribed in Chapter II, Part 4 of the Washington Treaty shall apply to all surface vessels of war of each of the High Contracting Parties.

    2. The standard displacement of a submarine is the surface displacement of the vessel complete (exclusive of the water in non-watertight structure) fully manned, engined, and equipped ready for sea, including all armament and ammunition, equipment, outfit, provisions for crew, miscellaneous stores, and implements of every description that are intended to be carried in war, but without fuel, lubricating oil, fresh water or ballast water of any kind on board.

    3. Each naval combatant vessel shall be rated at its displacement tonnage when in the standard condition. The word "ton", except in the expression "metric tons", shall be understood to be the ton of 2,240 pounds (1,016 kilos.).

    ARTICLE 7 - 1. No submarine the standard displacement of which exceeds 2,000 tons (2,032 metric tons) or with a gun above 5. I-inch (130 mm.) calibre shall be acquired by or constructed by or for any of the High Contracting Parties.

    2. Each of the High Contracting Parties may, however, retain, build or acquire a maximum number of three submarines of a standard displacement not exceeding 2,800 tons (2,845 metric tons); these submarines may carry guns not above 6.1-inch (155 mm.) calibre. Within this number, France may retain one unit, already launched, of 2,880 tons (2,926 metric tons), with guns the calibre of which is 8 inches (203 rom. ).

    3. The High Contracting Parties may retain the submarines which they possessed on the 1st April, 1930, having a standard displacement not in excess of 2,000 tons (2,032 metric tons) and armed with guns above 5. I-inch (130 mm.) calibre.

    4. As from the coming into force of the present Treaty in respect of all the High Contracting Parties, no submarine the standard displacement of which exceeds 2,000 tons (2,032 metric tons) or with a gun above 5.1-inch (130 mm.) calibre shall be constructed within the jurisdiction of any of the High Contracting Parties, except as provided in paragraph 2 of this Article.

    ARTICLE 8 - Subject to any special agreements which may submit them to limitation, the following vessels are exempt from limitation: (a) naval surface combatant vessels of 600 tons (610 metric tons) standard displacement and under; (b) naval surface combatant vessels exceeding 600 tons (610 metric tons), but not exceeding 2,000 tons (2,032 metric tons) standard displacement, provided they have none of the following characteristics:

    (1) mount a gun above 6.1-inch (155 mm.) calibre;
    (2) mount more than four guns above 3-inch (76 mm.) calibre;
    (3) are designed or fitted to launch torpedoes;
    (4) are designed for a speed greater than twenty knots.
    (c) naval surface vessels not specifically built as fighting ships which are employed on fleet duties or as troop transports or in some other way than as fighting ships, provided they have none of the following characteristics:

    (1) mount a gun above 6.1-inch ( 155 mm.) calibre;
    (2) mount more than four guns above 3-inch (76 mm.) calibre;
    (3) are designed or fitted to launch torpedoes;
    (4) are designed for a speed greater than twenty knots;
    (5) are protected by armour plate;
    (6) are designed or fitted to launch mines;
    (7) are fitted to receive aircraft on board from the air;
    (8) mount more than one aircraft-launching apparatus on the centre line; or two, one on each broadside;
    (9) if fitted with any means of launching aircraft into the air, are designed or adapted to operate at sea more than three aircraft.

    ARTICLE 9 - The rules as to replacement contained in Annex I to this Part II are applicable to vessels of war not exceeding 10,000 tons (10,160 metric tons) standard displacement, with the exception of aircraft carriers, whose replacement is governed by the provisions of the Washington Treaty.

    ARTICLE 10 - Within one month after the date of laying down and the date of completion respectively of each vessel of war, other than capital ships, aircraft carriers and the vessels exempt from limitation under Article 8, laid down or completed by or for them after the coming into force of the present Treaty, the High Contracting Parties shall communicate to each of the other High Contracting Parties the information detailed below: (a) the date of laying the keel and the following particulars: classification of the vessel; standard displacement in tons and metric tons; principal dimensions, namely: length at water-line, extreme beam at or below water-line; mean draft at standard displacement; calibre of the largest gun. (b) the date of completion together with the foregoing particulars relating to the vessel at that date. The information to be given in the case of capital ships and aircraft carriers is governed by the Washington Treaty.

    ARTICLE 11 - Subject to the provisions of Article 2 of the present Treaty, the rules for disposal contained in Annex II to this Part II shall be applied to all vessels of war to be disposed of under the said Treaty, and to aircraft carriers as defined in Article 3.

    ARTICLE 12 - 1. Subject to any supplementary agreements which may modify, as between the High Contracting Parties concerned, the lists in Annex III to this Part II, the special vessels shown therein may be retained and their tonnage shall not be included in the tonnage subject to limitation.

    2. Any other vessel constructed, adapted or acquired to serve the purposes for which these special vessels are retained shall be charged against the tonnage of the appropriate combatant category, according to the characteristics of the vessel, unless such vessel conforms to the characteristics of vessels exempt from limitation under Article 8.

    3. Japan may, however, replace the minelayers "Aso" and "Tokiwa" by two new minelayers before the 31st December, 1936. The standard displacement of each of the new vessels shall not exceed 5,000 tons (5,080 metric tons); their speed shall not exceed twenty knots, and their other characteristics shall conform to the provisions of paragraph (b) of Article 8. The new vessels shall be regarded as special vessels and their tonnage shall not be chargeable to the tonnage of any combatant category. The "Aso" and "Tokiwa" shall be disposed of in accordance with Section I or II of Annex II to this Part II, on completion of the replacement vessels.

    4. The "Asama", "Yakumo", "Izumo", "Iwate" and "Kasuga" shall be disposed of in accordance with Section I or II of Annex II to this Part II when the first three vessels of the "Kuma" class have been replaced by new vessels. These three vessels of the "Kuma" class shall be reduced to the condition prescribed in Section V, sub-paragraph (b) 2 of Annex II to this Part II, and are to be used for training ships, and their tonnage shall not thereafter be included in the tonnage subject to limitation.

    ARTICLE 13 - Existing ships of various types, which, prior to the 1st April, 1930, have been used as stationary training establishments or hulks, may be retained in a non-seagoing condition. Note: Additional Rules for Replacement, Rules for Disposal of Vessels of War, and Special Vessels (listed by nation) are included in Annex I, II, and III of the Treaty, but are not listed here. See full treaty from the Library of Congress for those Annexes.

    PART III

    The President of the United States of America, His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, and His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, have agreed as between themselves to the provisions of this Part III :

    ARTICLE 14 - The naval combatant vessels of the United States, the British Commonwealth of Nations and Japan, other than capital ships, aircraft carriers and all vessels exempt from limitation under Article 8, shall be limited during the term of the present Treaty as provided in this Part III, and, in the case of special vessels, as provided in Article 12.

    ARTICLE 15 - For the purpose of this Part III the definition of the cruiser and destroyer categories shall be as follows:

    Cruisers - Surface vessels of war, other than capital ships or aircraft carriers, the standard displacement of which exceeds 1,850 tons (1,880 metric tons), or with a gun above 5.1 inch (130 mm.) calibre.

    The cruiser category is divided into two sub-categories, as follows: (a) cruisers carrying a gun above 6.1-inch (155 mm.) calibre; (b) cruisers carrying a gun not above 6. I-inch (155 mm.) calibre.

    Destroyers - Surface vessels of war the standard displacement of which does not exceed 1,850 tons (1,880 metric tons), and with a gun not above 5.1-inch (130 mm.) calibre.

    ARTICLE 16 - 1. The completed tonnage in the cruiser, destroyer and submarine categories which is not to be exceeded on the 31st December, 1936, is given in the following table:

    Cruisers: (a) with guns of more than 6.1" 155mm calibre: 180,000 tons (US) - 146,800 tons (Britain), 108,400 tons (Japan)

    (b) with guns of 6.1" 155mm calibre or less: 143,500 tons (US), 192,200 tons (Britain), 100,450 tons (Japan)

    Destroyers: 150,000 tons (US) 150,000 tons (Britain) 105,500 tons (Japan)

    Submarines: 52,700 tons (US), 52,700 tons (Britain), 52,700 tons (Japan)

    2. Vessels which cause the total tonnage in any category to exceed the figures given in the foregoing table shall be disposed of gradually during the period ending on the 31st December, 1936. 3. The maximum number of cruisers of sub-category (a) shall be as follows: for the United States, eighteen; for the British Commonwealth of Nations, fifteen; for Japan, twelve. 4. In the destroyer category not more than sixteen per cent. of the allowed total tonnage shall be employed in vessels of over 1,500 tons (1,524 metric tons) standard displacement. Destroyers completed or under construction on the 1st April, 1930, in excess of this percentage may be retained, but no other destroyers exceeding 1,500 tons (1,524 metric tons) standard displacement shall be constructed or acquired until a reduction to such sixteen per cent. has been effected. 5. Not more than twenty-five per cent. of the allowed total tonnage in the cruiser category may be fitted with a landing-on platform or deck for aircraft. 6. It is understood that the submarines referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 7 will be counted as part of the total submarine tonnage of the High Contracting Party concerned. 7. The tonnage of any vessels retained under Article 13 or disposed of in accordance with Annex II to Part II of the present Treaty shall not be included in the tonnage subject to limitation.

    ARTICLE 17 - A transfer not exceeding ten percent of the allowed total tonnage of the category or sub-category into which the transfer is to be made shall be permitted between cruisers of sub-category (b) and destroyers.

    ARTICLE 18 - The United States contemplates the completion by 1935 of fifteen cruisers of sub-category (a) of an aggregate tonnage of 150,000 tons (152,400 metric tons). For each of the three remaining cruisers of sub-category (a) which it is entitled to construct the United States may elect to substitute 15,166 tons (15,409 metric tons) of cruisers of sub-category (b). In case the United States shall construct one or more of such three remaining cruisers of subcategory (a), the sixteenth unit will not be laid down before 1933 and will not be completed before 1936; the seventeenth will not be laid down before 1934 and will not be completed before 1937; the eighteenth will not be laid down before 1935 and will not be completed before 1938.

    ARTICLE 19 - Except as provided in Article 20, the tonnage laid down in any category subject to limitation in accordance with Article 16 shall not exceed the amount necessary to reach the maximum allowed tonnage of the category, or to replace vessels that become "over-age" before the 31st December, 1936. Nevertheless, replacement tonnage may be laid down for cruisers and submarines that become "over-age" in 1937, 1938 and 1939, and for destroyers that become "over-age" in 1937 and 1938.

    ARTICLE 20 - Notwithstanding the rules for replacement contained in Annex I to Part II: (a) The "Frobisher" and "Effingham" (United Kingdom) may be disposed of during the year 1936. Apart from the cruisers under construction on the 1st April, 1930, the total replacement tonnage of cruisers to be completed, in the case of the British Commonwealth of Nations, prior to the 31st December, 1936, shall not exceed 91,000 tons (92,456 metric tons). (b) Japan may replace the "Tama" by new construction to be completed during the year 1936. (c) In addition to replacing destroyers becoming "over-age" before the 31st December, 1936, Japan may lay down, in each of the years 1935 and 1936, not more than 5,200 tons (5,283 metric tons) to replace part of the vessels that become "over-age" in 1938 and 1939. (d) Japan may anticipate replacement during the term of the present Treaty by laying down not more than 19,200 tons (19,507 metric tons) of submarine tonnage, of which not more than 12,000 tons (12,192 metric tons) shall be completed by the 31st December, 1936.

    ARTICLE 21 - If, during the term of the present Treaty, the requirements of the national security of any High Contracting Party in respect of vessels of war limited by Part III of the present Treaty are in the opinion of that Party materially affected by new construction of any Power other than those who have joined in Part III of this Treaty, that High Contracting Party will notify the other Parties to Part III as to the increase required to be made in its own tonnages within one or more of the categories of such vessels of war, specifying particularly the proposed increases and the reasons therefor, and shall be entitled to make such increase. Thereupon the other Parties to Part III of this Treaty shall be entitled to make a proportionate increase in the category or categories specified; and the said other Parties shall promptly advise with each other through diplomatic channels as to the situation thus presented.

    PART IV

    ARTICLE 22 - The following are accepted as established rules of International Law: ( 1) In their action with regard to merchant ships, submarines must conform to the rules of International Law to which surface vessels are subject. (2) In particular, except in the case of persistent refusal to stop on being duly summoned, or of active resistance to visit or search, a warship, whether surface vessel or submarine, may not sink or render incapable of navigation a merchant vessel without having first placed passengers, crew and ship's papers in a place of safety. For this purpose the ship's boats are not regarded as a place of safety unless the safety of the passengers and crew is assured, in the existing sea and weather conditions, by the proximity of land, or the presence of another vessel which is in a position to take them on board. The High Contracting Parties invite all other Powers to express their assent to the above rules.

    PART V

    ARTICLE 23 - The present Treaty shall remain in force until the 31st December, 1936, subject to the following exceptions: (1) Part IV shall remain in force without limit of time; (2) the provisions of Articles 3, 4 and 5, and of Article 11 and Annex II to Part II so far as they relate to aircraft carriers, shall remain in force for the same period as the Washington Treaty. Unless the High Contracting Parties should agree otherwise by reason of a more general agreement limiting naval armaments, to which they all become parties, they shall meet in conference in 1935 to frame a new treaty to replace and to carry out the purposes of the present Treaty, it being understood that none of the provisions of the present Treaty shall prejudice the attitude of any of the High Contracting Parties at the conference agreed to.

    ARTICLE 24 - 1. The present Treaty shall be ratified by the High Contracting Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional methods and the ratifications shall be deposited at London as soon as possible. Certified copies of all the proces-verbaux of the deposit of ratifications will be transmitted to the Governments of all the High Contracting Parties.

    2. As soon as the ratifications of the United States of America, of His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, in respect of each and all of the Members of the British Commonwealth of Nations as enumerated in the preamble of the present Treaty, and of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan have been deposited, the Treaty shall come into force in respect of the said High Contracting Parties.

    3. On the date of the coming into force referred to in the preceding paragraph, Parts I, II, IV and V of the present Treaty will come into force in respect of the French Republic and the Kingdom of Italy if their ratifications have been deposited at that date; otherwise these Parts will come into force in respect of each of those Powers on the deposit of its ratification.

    4. The rights and obligations resulting from Part III of the present Treaty are limited to the High Contracting Parties mentioned in paragraph 2 of this Article. The High Contracting Parties will agree as to the date on which, and the conditions under which, the obligations assumed under the said Part III by the High Contracting Parties mentioned in paragraph 2 of this Article will bind them in relation to France and Italy; such agreement will determine at the same time the corresponding obligations of France and Italy in relation to the other High Contracting Parties.

    ARTICLE 25 - After the deposit of the ratifications of all the High Contracting Parties, His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland will communicate the provisions inserted in Part IV of the present Treaty to all Powers which are not signatories of the said Treaty, inviting them to accede thereto definitely and without limit of time. Such accession shall be effected by a declaration addressed to His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

    ARTICLE 26 - The present Treaty, of which the French and English texts are both authentic, shall remain deposited in the archives of His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Duly certified copies thereof shall be transmitted to the Governments of all the High Contracting Parties. In faith whereof the above-named Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and have affixed thereto their seals. Done at London, the twenty-second day of April, nineteen hundred and thirty.

    Photo above: United States delegation to the First London Naval Conference in January 1930, Admiral William V. Pratt. Courtesy Naval Historical Foundation via Wikipedia Commons. Below: USS Florida, 1921, Gustave Maurer. The USS Florida, commissioned into the United States Navy in September 1911, was one of the ships that was destroyed per the 1930 London Naval Reduction Treaty. It was scrapped in 1932 in Philadelphia. Courtesy Naval History and Heritage Command via Wikipedia Commons. Info Source: Library of Congress; Miller Center, University of Virginia; "The London Naval Conference," CQ Researcher; Wikipedia Commons.

    USS Florida 1921




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